New Volume

ISSN 0204-7209
ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Volume 3-4
Sofia 2023



ANNOTATIONS


Yuriy Shuisky, Galina Vykhovanetz, Aleksey Davydov – THE CURRENT STATE OF COASTAL SCIENCE AND ITS PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.1

For states in the Black Sea region, coastal sciences are very important because they have pomposity significance for the usage of natural resources and construction projects by seaports, coastal defense, recreation, and touristic institutions, etc. During the last period, the science was named «teaching about sea coasts». But current practice expects more perfection from the theory and practical possibilities. This work aims to analyze the current state and theory of coastal studies as a geographical science and its practical possibilities in various branches of economic activity. Coastal sciences are one of the multigeographical sciences, with practical directions (for the evolution of geography in general, in education, buildings, natural resources usage, recreation, navigation, hydrotechnical construction, nature defense, and so on). The paper analyzes new, more advanced research information about the nature of the coastal zone of the sea. Based on this information, a fundamental, more complete update of the doctrine of the coastal zone of the sea was carried out, and a systematic physical and geographical science of the exogenous environment was created at the contact of the active mutual influence of land and sea, along with the continental environment and the oceanic environment as part of the geographical shell. The article summarizes the latest provisions of the methodology of coastal marine research in connection with the emergence of new requirements from economic practice, the advent of scientific and theoretical approaches, principles, and methods, the use of new instruments and equipment, and the development of natural science methodology. This made it possible to harmonize the higher quality of the research material with the current state of the coastal zone and, on this basis, formulate a number of regularities and scientific concepts. They are very effective for practical use. The presented materials, conclusions, concepts, improved research methodology, and accumulated experience made it possible to develop, formulate, evaluate, and apply a number of practical applications in the areas of geographical science, coastal education, engineering, and industrial practice to ensure rational environmental management on the seacoasts. As a result, it was possible to develop the foundations of the development strategy for the coastal zone of the sea, which make it possible to preserve the useful properties of coastal systems and preserve the constructed economic facilities. In turn, monitoring building sites allows us to improve the elements of this strategy and gain experience for the future development of science.

Keywords: sea coasts, the origin of actions, the evolution of the science, coastal sciences, methods, theory, practice.


Georgi Zhelezov – DEFINITION AND SPATIAL MODELING OF THE BLACK SEA COASTAL REGION IN BULGARIA

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.2

The article aims to present a scientifically and legislatively justified definition of the Black Sea coastal region in Bulgaria. The theoretical parameters of the understanding and definition of coast and coastal zone are examined. An analysis was made of the existing legislation and the leading elements for the designation of a coast. All potential elements for the determination of coastal zones are characterized – morphological, landscape, etc. In order to achieve a higher degree of understanding and representativeness of the studied problem, a spatial model of the Black Sea coastal region in Bulgaria was developed. A basic theoretical component is the consideration of the model in geographic systems as analogies in relation to: natural phenomena, social and economic phenomena, alphanumeric images and mathematical formulas. Another key point is the understanding and application of models as part of the argumentative toolkit in the theory development.

Keywords: coastal region, Black sea region, definition.


Rumen Penin, Dimitar Zhelev – LANDSCAPE-GEOCHEMICAL RESEARCH IN THE MOUNTAINS KOPAONIK AND RADAN (R SERBIA)

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.3

The article examines the results of landscape-geochemical research in areas of the Kopaonik and Radan mountains. The general contents of the priority heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Co, Cr) in the mentioned sites, as well as the features of their migration, differentiation and concentration, were studied. Chemical analyzes were made of the soil and bottom sediment samples taken. The obtained results were analyzed and interpreted by comparing the concentrations with heavy metals in the two mountains, as well as with the same natural components from other regions of the world. The mines with lead-zinc and polymetallic ores established in the two mountains were also taken into account, which also affect the contents of heavy metals in the studied sites. In the soils of Mount Kopaonik, Pb is distinguished with an increased concentration, and to a certain extent Cu. The soils in Radan Mountain are distinguished by elevated concentrations of lead and zinc, and to a certain extent of manganese. The remaining elements are in low concentrations, especially nickel and chromium. Studies of the bottom sediments show the presence of the association of heavy metals Pb, Zn and Cu in Radan Mountain, while the concentrations of Mn and Cr are relatively higher in Kopaonik. The remaining trace elements have similar concentrations in both mountains. A higher Zn content (277.5 mg/kg) was noted in groundwater in the sample of bottom sediments from Mount Radan – “Red Spring”, which points to a connection with the naturally higher content of the element with the lithogeochemistry of the area. The results can be useful in monitoring the state of the geochemical picture of the landscapes, and part of the obtained results can be considered as background for the two regions in terms of trace elements Mn, Ni, Co, Cr and Cu, distinguished by a high degree of distraction.

Keywords: heavy metals, soils, bottom sediments, contamination, landscapes,
geochemistry, monitoring


Georgi Zhelezov – DIFFERENTIATION AND SPATIAL MODELING OF THE LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY OF SUHOBLATSKA WETLAND SYSTEM

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.4

The goal of the article is to present the main spatial projections and morphohydrographic characteristics of the Suhoblatska wetland system near the village of General Kolevo, Dobrich region. The research is first geographical investigation of this region. Taking into account the component features of the region, a differentiation of landscapes and specific landscape units is realized. The characteristic and analysis of the morpho-hydrographic peculiarities clearly reveals the morpho-structure of the wetland with well-defined morphographic elements. Landscape diversity of the region of the Suhoblatska system of wetlands is dominated by hydromorphic and subhydromorphic landscapes. In the territories adjacent to the wetland, a type of Plain, temperate semiarid landscapes is defined, with a subtype Steppe and forest-steppe (Dobrudzhian), including two types – Plain, denudationerosive and accumulative with steppes and Plain, denudation-erosive and accumulative with forest-steppe, occupied by agriculture land with the adjacent transport infrastructure. Two spatial models are created – 1. Reconstruction model of the Sukhoblatska system of wetlands based on the multi-scale topographic maps from different time periods and 2. Model of landscape diversity of the Sukhoblatska system of wetlands.

Keywords: spatial modeling, landscape diversity, wetland system


Stoyan Kyurkchiev – MICROCLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHIRPAN BUNAR CAVE

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.5

Chirpan Bunar Cave is located in the area of Granit village in Bratya Daskalovi municipality – Stara Zagora district. It is one of the few open caves in the Upper Thracian plain. The cave has formed in limestones of the marlstone-limestone association made of bioclastic limestone. The cave is relatively small and has a permanent karst spring. Since April 2016, it has been the subject of research and speleo-microclimatic monitoring. Field measurements of speleoatmospheric parameters of the cave were carried out twice a year – in spring and autumn. In the cave gallery, 5 points for measuring the air temperature, the available water, the relative humidity of the air have been established. The temperature of the speleoatmosphere is measured with the dry thermometer of an Assmann psychrometer. The temperatures of the available cave waters and sediments are measured with a dry mercury thermometer. The relative humidity of the air is determined using an aspiration psychrometer and a psychrometric table. Following a subsequent analysis, the speleo-microclimatic zones in the cave were located. Three main typically distributed speleo-microclimatic zones, and one local zone, have been determined in the cave: entrance zone, transitional zone and internal zone, as well as a local sub-zone of the internal zone. The ventilation regimes in the cave have also been investigated. The natural ventilation and temperature regimes in the cave have been affected by the anthropogenic impact. Field studies were conducted in the Srednogorsko-Thracian karst region.

Keywords: karst, caves, microclimate, speleoatmosphere, monitoring


Georgi Alexiev, Marinela Agalareva – A HOLISTIC PALEOGEOGRAPHIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE STUDYING OF THE “BOAZA” ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE ALONG THE ROUTE OF “HEMUS” HIGHWAY

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.6

Based on the implemented integrated methodological (geophysical, archaeological and geomorphological methods) approach at the beginning of 2020, it was established that a compact cultural lithological-stratigraphic layer is marked in the modern soil sections under the humus horizon to the west-northwest of the construction embankment of the highway. The layer includes a dark alluvial soil in which small fragments of Roman pottery were present: kilns, pottery sherds, charcoal, small pieces of brick plaster. The excavated anthropogenic site is outlined by gravel-boulder structures (foundations), the walls above which were probably made of wood, plastered with clay and dated to the Roman era, as well as an alluvial cover of sandy-clay solder of different configuration, dimensions and insignificant thickness. In addition, during the archaeological excavations, several ceramic fragments from the Iron Age and a large amount of domestic pottery – tableware, kitchenware and coins from the second to the middle of the third century AD were also found. The fossilization of fragments of the identified compact cultural layer is associated with the onset of the sub-Atlantic phase or the second climatic optimum, which was characterized by a warm and humid climate, and continued into the new millennium. The active erosion-denudation processes in the range of the summit areas on the western bank of the Vit River valley are probably connected with that warm climatic optimum. Those processes caused the formation of a transeluvial-proluvial lithodynamic flow of sandy-clay and gravelly sands, as well as a significant participation of a gravel-boulder fraction of clastic deposits accumulated at the base of a sedimentary cone, which buried the cultural layer between the two landmasses west and east of the “Cantona”. Salvage field research has been only carried out in the western segment of the site, while the eastern fragment is yet to be further excavated and objectively and thoroughly studied.

Keywords: archaeology, magnetometry, structural geomorphology and paleogeography.


Nadezhda Ilieva, Ivanka Boteva – CONSEQUENCES OF SPATIAL SEGREGATION

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.7

The paper examines the issue of spatial segregation, which has been the subject of a number of research studies and policy discussions. Almost a century ago, segregation became the subject of discussion by a number of authors who emphasized its importance for the integration of ethnic groups in the United States and in some European countries. In recent years, spatial segregation – a common feature of numerous large cities in Europe – along with the integration of minority groups and immigrants, has attracted more and more attention. Generally, large cities in Western Europe attract immigrants from different countries and are distinguished by a wide variety of ethnic minorities, which become an important component of the urban population. Many scientists analyse the existing segregated spaces, study their characteristics, and the consequences of their influence not only on the segregated population, but also on the surrounding urban space. Some of the main aspects in the study of spatial segregation are: 1. Clarification of the space-time relationship, or the analysis of urban spaces and their change over the years; 2. Clarification of the space-population relationship, or the analysis of the influence and reflection of spatial patterns on the lifestyle of the population that inhabits such spaces. The nature of the location of the segregated areas, and their position in relation to other objects in the urban space, is of utmost importance for the consequences that follow the process of segregation. Klaff (1987) points out that for geographers, spatial location is a major determinant of interaction patterns, although in recent decades, developments in transport and communication technologies have made it possible to reduce spatial constraints. As spatial proximity increases, the likelihood and degree of social interaction increases. For a large part of the rest of the population, which has a higher social and professional status, segregated neighborhoods have a negative social image and are outside the so-called mental maps of the residents as a possible habitat. Almost always, the bad reputation of these neighborhoods is transferred to the neighboring urban areas as well, but it also has a negative impact on public policies and investment activity, as well as on the attempts of state bodies and local authorities to integrate segregated population groups. A very important characteristic of segregated spaces is the so-called “proximity effect”, referring not only to the proximity of individual residents, but also to their access to various institutions. These effects are defined as negative in terms of socialization processes and future life trajectories, and are linked to a number of problems, such as long-term unemployment, poor social contacts, increase in crime rates, difficult access to local urban resources, etc. In addition to those negative consequences, some positive features can also be noted, such as inter-ethnic support within the segregated group; possibilities to organize institutional support, especially when the group is more numerous; establishment of joint business opportunities among the members of the segregated group, etc. However, those positive features of segregation help consolidate the given population group and make future integration attempts even more difficult. Evaluating the positive and negative effects of spatial segregation, it can be concluded that the negative effects are significantly more. In modern discussions, the prevailing opinion is that spatial segregation strengthens the existing social inequalities and leads to many other negative consequences related to restrictions on the participation of segregated residents in the social life of the city, low quality of education, low degree of integration into the labor market, deteriorated health indicators etc. In this regard, measures are being taken by state and local authorities to overcome these consequences, which will be the subject of a subsequent publication.

Keywords: spatial segregation, spatial stigmatization, socialization, integration of ethnic groups


Nadezhda Ilieva, Kaloyan Tsvetkov, Ivanka Boteva – SPATIAL AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF GHETTOIZED ROMA
STRUCTURES IN THE CITY OF VIDIN

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.8

Modern societies are faced with many challenges related to the ever-increasing migrant flows and the ethnic, religious, economic, social and other problems that may arise as a result. That leads to complex sectoral and spatial changes, characteristic primarily of European and US cities. Social inequalities, concentration of people of different ethnicities, and the longterm interactions between them, sooner or later affect the structure of urban spaces. New patterns of socio-spatial polarization – based mostly on income inequality and ethnicity – are alarming local authorities, thus forcing policy-making and decision-making regarding the problems of segregated societies. The topic of spatial segregation has occupied a significant place in scientific research for many years, and recently it has become increasingly common in a number of political discussions. The paper represents a brief theoretical review of concepts related to spatial segregation such as ghetto, enclave, citadel, ghettoized urban structure, etc., reflecting some authors’ view on some concepts. Attention is paid to the ghettoized urban structures in the cities of Bulgaria – as a specific form of spatial segregation – and the various problems accumulated in such cities – environmental, social, economic, etc. The “Nov Pat” district in the city of Vidin, where a large part of the Roma in the city live, has been specifically examined: with the help of orthophoto images, the current state of the segregated space was mapped, while in-depth interviews with employees from the local administration have been conducted, as well as monitoring of some demographic, social, economic, etc. processes taking place in the segregated community. The results show an increase in area of the the studied Roma neighbourhood by 13%, along with a 20% increase of the housing stock during the period between 2005 and 2022, leading to overcrowded and deteriorated housing, a high share of illegal housing, lack of sewage, etc. The remoteness of the neighbourhood deprives its inhabitants of access to urban resources such as basic health and educational services, which explains their low educational, health and cultural level. Regardless of the decreasing population of Vidin as a whole, a population increase is observed in the Roma neighbourhood, where currently 75% of the Roma in the town of Vidin live. Unemployment represents a serious issue – the unemployment rate is around 80%, while the employment rate is low. The Roma themselves partly solve that problem as some 25% of the residents emigrate for various periods of time as seasonal or permanent work in different European countries. The income they receive there, is later invested in building new homes or repairing existing ones, thus improving their living conditions. The local city authorities are taking measures to overcome the accumulated problems – a number of projects and trainings are being implemented to promote self-employment in order to provide opportunities for professional development of the working population: 640 persons of Roma origin have undergone motivational and professional trainings in 2021 alone. Another significant good practice aimed directly at the Roma community, is the activity of Roma mediators in the spheres of health care, education and employment. There has been a trend of increase in the number of mediators, and their affirmation as an inalienable part of the relevant systems in the city of Vidin.

Keywords: spatial segregation, ghettoized urban structure, Roma neighbourhood, social
and spatial dimensions.


Desislava Varadzhakova, Marina Raykova, Nadezhda Ilieva, Kristina Gartsiyanova, Dessislava Poleganova, Boris Kazakov – TOURISM IN CRISIS

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.9

This paper presents theoretical knowledge about crises by clarifying the concept of “crisis”, defines different types of crises, and examines their specificity in the field of tourism and their impact on the tourism industry. A bibliographic analysis of publications related to tourism crises in the world database Scopus is made. The main force majeure events, having a negative effect on the tourism business in the last two decades, are listed. The COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as the most significant negative event to date, leading to the complete closure of destinations and the largest ever recorded decline in international tourism for the first time in modern history. The effect of the pandemic on tourism in Bulgaria is examined and the main guidelines from the project “Investigation of the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry at the national and regional level” are presented. The aim of the project is to analyze and evaluate the structural and spatial changes of economic entities in the tourism industry as a result of the impact of the pandemic, by tracking and analyzing the various aspects of this impact on tourism in Bulgaria, as well as the regional challenges facing it.

Keywords: crisis, tourism, COVID-19, pandemic, socio-economic impact


Dimitar Parlichev, Georgi Parlichev – STATIONARY ECOLOGICAL COMPLEX

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.10

The article describes a hybrid marine structure, a stationary ecological complex composed of an artificial reef, mussel farms, and an artificial island. Its numerous advantages over existing structures are highlighted, and it is anticipated that experiments will confirm that it is the most affordable, effective, and profitable marine facility created, solving a number of
current problems simultaneously.

Keywords: artificial reef, mussel farm, artificial island, carbonate beach generation, carbon dioxide removal.


Dimitar Parlichev, Georgi Parlichev – DETACHED PROTECTION OF THE VARNA BREAKWATER

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.11

The Varna port breakwater is vulnerable to settlement resulting from strong waves, due to the presence of a 16-meter layer of unconsolidated silt and clay at its foundation. There is a risk of partial or complete collapse of the central and southern part of the breakwater (which has happened in the past, followed by reconstruction). To address these vulnerabilities, a proposed solution is to implement detached protection at 250–350 m to the east from the breakwater by building two arrays of square submerged stationary ecological complexes with edges facing the incident waves. These complexes, which consist of artificial reefs, surrounding mussel farms, and artificial islands above them, will reduce the storm wave height to less than 2 m, which is safe for the breakwater. Detached protection is more secure and less expensive, and has several distinct advantages compared to the unfinished protective rubble-mound berm.

Keywords: Varna breakwater, detached coastal protection, segmented coastal protection, stationary ecological complex.


Viliyan Krastev – ABOUT THE BORDERS IN GEOGRAPHICAL, GEOPOLITICAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW ASPECTS

DOI: 10.35101/prg-2023.3-4.12

Review of the monographic work of Assoc. Prof. PhD Mira Kaneva “The borders in international relations. Theoretical, normative and practical problems” (Sofia: Publ. house “Gutenberg”, 2022, 340 p.)