ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Tzanko Tzankov, Svetla Stankova, Krasimir Stoyanov, Rosen Iliev, Ilia Mitkov, Tatyana Aleksieva – Comparative analysis between the Rhodope mountain massif and Rila-Pirin mountain range (South Bulgaria, Nort-East Greece)
– SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF FMNS (FMNS-2017) MODERN TRENDS IN SCIENCE 14 – 18.06.2017, Blagoevgrad, BULGARIA
The Seventh International Conference “Modern Trends in Science” (FMNS-2017) is organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Blagoevgrad, BULGARIA.
Ivan Drenovski – ABOUT THE INDEX (COEFFICIENT) OF PRECIPITATION’S CONTINENTALITY IN BULGARIA
Bulgaria is situated on the border between the subtropical and moderate continental climatic zones in Europe. Most researchers working on climate regionalization in our country distinguished two or three climatic zones. One of the main criteria for their differentiation is related to the distribution of rainfall during the year. For this purpose in
Bulgarian climatology is used the so-called “Index of continentality” of precipitation. In order to better take into account the differences between the moderate continental and Mediterranean type of rainfall regime, a new formula is proposed for calculating the indicator under the new name – “Coefficient of continentality”. The observation data for a number of stations in the country are compared for different periods. On this basis are made conclusions on the
expedience of using the indicators and their adequacy, taking into account the peculiarities of the two main types of precipitation regimes in Bulgaria.
Keywords: moderate and Mediterranean precipitation regime, index and coefficient of continentallity, cold and warm part of the year
Tzanko Tzankov, Svetla Stankova, Krasimir Stoyanov, Rosen Iliev, Ilia Mitkov, Tatyana Aleksieva – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE RHODOPE MOUNTAIN MASSIF AND RILA-PIRIN MOUNTAIN RANGE (SOUTH BULGARIA, NORT-EAST GREECE)
The realized regional investigation show some important morphostructural differences between the Rhodopes and Rila-Pirin Mountains Range. The Rhodope Mountain represents a morphostructural zone with almost oval and gently WNW-ESE elongated form. Rila-Pirin Mountains Range is a NNW-ESE elongated morphostructural range. The both morphounits
are distinguished through large (more than 700 m) maximal topography altitude differences. This and some others important differences between them in terms of relief be due to the deep Earth´s crust Quaternary geodynamic processes in connection to intra continental collision between Gondwana and Neo Europe in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
Keywords: mountain range, morphostructural zone, morphounits, differences
Svetoslav Nikolov, Ivan Drenovski – ECONOMIC VALUATION OF SOME ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE BULGARIAN PART OF VLAHINA MOUNTAIN
The main objective of this report is the economic valuation of the provisioning ecosystem services raw materials. The total stock of timber and annual wood consumption in the Bulgarian part of Vlahina is put on the basis of the monetary estimation. The primary data about parameters of forest vegetation are obtained from Blagoevgrad and Kyustendil
Regional Forestry. The market price method is used for this evaluation. The results show high economic potential of the forests in the Vlahina Mountain as a source of raw materials.
Keywords: ecosystem services, Vlahina Mountain, economic valuation, raw materials
Stefan Petrov, Vladimir Karadzhov – CONTEMPORARY PROCESSES OF DEPOPULATION IN VIDIN DISTRICT
The contemporary demographic development of Bulgaria is characterized by deteriorated characteristics in a number of basic demographic indices. The country is ranked one of the last places in the world by population growth and one of the first places in the world in mortality rate and rate of decrease of the population (according to the UN, World Bank,
etc.). The negative population growth additionally aggravates the situation. One of the most affected areas in this regard is the Vidin region, located in the northwestern part of the country. The present study aims to trace the pace of depopulation in the district during the period 2000-2015. There are 2 deleted villages and a constant decrease in the population.
Keywords: depopulation, settlements, crisis, population, Bulgaria, Europe
Gergana Nikolova, Emilia Patarchanova – SOCIAL SPHERE AND SOCIAL CAPITAL – OPPORTUNITIES
FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MUNICIPALITIERS IN KYUSTENDIL REGION
People are the most important and valuable resource of Bulgaria. They are entitled to decent living and full participation in society, good health and productive life. Policy Demographic Development is an integral part of the overall policy of economic, cultural and social development of the country. Sustainable development is a means of ensuring the welfare of Bulgarian citizens – both those living today and future generations. Sustainable development can create a reasonable and balanced management of population, resources and environment.
Keywords: Social sphere, sustainable development, social capital
Valentin Iliev – REGIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE REFUGEE SETTLEMENTS TERRITORIAL DISPERSION IN LEBANON
The Political geography aspects of the diffusion of old ethno–religious establishment in process of new immigrant inflows caused by on-going conflicts in Middle East. This is the case study of Lebanon presenting the interaction and mutual relations between territorial (spatial) and time (history) consequences of past and recent refugee inflows. The
respective challenges over territorial integrity and national security caused by demographic changes over national security are presented as results in this survey. The case study is interesting in sense of the discussions among the EU members about the implementation of the explicit refugee quotas for people looking for asylum from conflict countries.
Keywords: Lebanon, refugees, national security
Emil Gachev, Brigitte Magori, Flavius-Sorin Sîrbu, Krasimir Stoyanov, Miroslav Ivanov – FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF ROCK GLACIERS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF BULGARIA
The article presents the newest results of field observations of rock glaciers in Rila and Pirin mountains, made in the autumn of 2015 and the summers of 2016 and 2017. Rock glaciers can be considered a typical landform in the high mountain areas of Rila and Pirin. More than 70 rock glaciers exist in the mountains of Bulgaria, at altitudes between 2200 and 2700 m a. s. l. Most of them are considered relict, formed in conditions colder than the present climate and warmer (or drier) than the climate during ice ages. However, it may appear that some of the highest rock glaciers are rather dormant than relict, or even active. A large number of rock glaciers was described and observed in the last two years, and some measurements were done. Thermistors for continuous measurement of ground temperature were installed in several locations to evaluate ground thermal conditions throughout the year, and respectively the possibility of the occurrence of permafrost and present-day activity. 782 Schmidt hammer tests were done on rock glaciers in Rila and glacial landforms in Rila, results indicate younger age in upper sections.
Keywords: rock glaciers, Rila, Pirin, Schmidt hammer, climate
Stefani Nesheva, Ivan Drenovski – DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLE ROUTES FOR SCHOOL TRIPS
IN THE VICINITY OF SOFIA
The article discusses the need for school field trips, because the best method for schooling is learning through experience. The article is aiming to show the need for traveling as a means to contribute to school lessons. The main task is to suggest routes in the area around Sofia and such to help teachers in organizing trips. Field trips help kids learn
information about the world surrounding them, they have a positive effect on the physical shape of children and on acquiring personal experience and they can help create a bond with their teacher. While aiming at ecological and nature education, field trips can play a key role in forming a cultural and national identity and can contribute to a healthy way of life and learning new skills. Kids participating in trips can escape the routine of everyday life in the city environment, while the itinerary can be planed according to the current lessons in the school curriculum. Educational and schooling methods can be applied. The three indicative routes are: 1. Almodovsko swamp, Dragomansko swamp, a walk to Chepаn mountain. 2.Baylovo village, a visit to the house of writer Elin Pelin, a visit to the Spasova hill, visiting
Ognyanovo lake. 3. Visiting the monuments at Slivnitza city, Gourgoulyat village and the “Petlyuka” area. Extracurricular activities amongst nature are not only helpful, but are a needed factor for better educating young people.
Keywords: travelling, cultural-historical and natural heritage, familiarization of the motherland, learning through experience.
Liubov Vishnikina – GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION: SUBJECT GEOGRAPHIC COMPETENCE
The article deals with the problem of the competency building approach to Geography teaching, the introducing of which is stipulated by the necessity to change the conceptual approaches to the content of geographic education and prediction of its results. The necessity in theoretical and applied research directed to scientific reasoning of the structure and content of subject geographic competencies of the pupils has been defined. The notions of “competence” and “competency” have been disclosed in the article, as well as the groups of geographic competencies – key, inter-subject integral and subject competencies have been characterised. At the same time the main attention has been paid to defining the functions and structure of subject geographic competency of pupils as a comprehensive whole. The content of individual subject geographic competencies, such as: geographic knowledge, geographic skills, and the experience of creative activity in geography, emotive and value attitude to environment and human activities in it, geographic comprehension of the world have been elucidated. This research has been done within the frames of the author’s research of complex theme “Methodological system of developing subject geographic competency of pupils of secondary school”.
Keywords: competency building approach to Geography teaching, competencies, key competencies and inter-subject integral competencies, subject geographic competency of the pupils.
Dimitar Parlichev – MORPHOBLEMES
The author continues his critical analysis of the key concepts in geomorphology, offering a new classification unit – morphoblemes. They represent the craters on the Earth’s surface from meteorite bombardment. This type of “forms of relief” (“morphostructures” according to the author) have not yet found their place in the most famous and used classifications of land relief due to the neutral and inaccurate name “astroblemes”. The authoir expects the name “structural geomorphology” to be replaced by its synonym “morphotectonics”; objects to the requirement that any concept in geomorphology remains in tis primary form to provide “natural selection” of the concepts as a guarantee for its evolution; illustrates some advantages of genetic classification of morphological structure.
Keywords: relief, morphostructures, morphotectures, morphosculptures, morpholithes, mofphoblemes.
Ангел Велчев – 115 YEARS SINCE THE BIRTH Of PROF. ILIYA IVANOV
This material is devoted to the 115th anniversary of the birth of the prominent Bulgarian geographer Prof. Iliya Ivanov. The author recalls his great contribution to the development of physical geography and to the foundation of landscape science, his teaching activities in the preparation of future scientific staff and his public activities in the Bulgarian geographic society, whose 100th anniversary is celebrated in 2018.