ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Peter Nojarov – Temporal and spatial trends in greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere over Bulgaria
Iliya Trifonov – Statistical modeling and projections of the precipitation along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, based on the example of three representative weather stations
Georgi Alexiev, Marinela Agalareva, Georgi Jelev – A geodynamic model of quaternary tectonic processes within the Sofia seismic and tectonic zone
Jana Zapletalová, Dilyana Stefanova, Antonín Vaishar, Petar Stefanov, Petr Dvořák, Emilia Tcherkezovа – Social development of ecologically sensitive rural areas: Case studies of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) and the Devetashko Plato (Bulgaria)
Kristina Gartsiyanova – Assessment of land cover and land use in basin of the Osam river using Geographic Information Systems
Nadezhda Ilieva, Krasimir Asenov – Factors influencing the process of spatial segregation (the case of Arman mahala, Plovdiv) (Part one)
Petru Bunduc, Tatiana Bunduc, Vadim Cujba – Considerations on international migration of population from Botosani county (Moldova) in Madrid city (Spain)
Kiril Kaloyanov – Cycling tourism routes as an instrument for regional development and transnational cooperation within the lower basin of the Danube river
Desislava Hineva – Bulgarian legislation on complaints in tourism – guidelines for update
Congresses, Conferences, Symposia
Ivanka Boteva – 80 years since the IVth Congress of the Slavic Geographers and Ethnographers – Sofia – 1936
Peter Nojarov – TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL TRENDS IN GREENHOUSE GASES AND AEROSOLS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OVER BULGARIA
The article reveals temporal and spatial trends in greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere over Bulgaria. The period of study is from 09.2002 to 12.2015, and it is determined by the available database, which is based mainly on satellite measurements. Carbon dioxide and methane are measured by the instrument AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) on board of NASA‘s satellite Aqua. The total amount of aerosols over Bulgaria expressed by aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 0.55 microns is measured by the instrument MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board of NASA‘s satellite Terra. Data for specific humidity at levels 1000 hPa and 700 hPa for the territory of Bulgaria are obtained from The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA- Interim reanalysis. Statistical and cartographic methods were used in this research. Intra-annual and inter-annual course of specific humidity of the troposphere over Bulgaria are determined by the corresponding course of air temperature in direct proportion, and spatial distribution is determined mainly by three factors – atmospheric circulation, relief and the presence of large water bodies. Intra-annual course and spatial distribution of CO2 in the troposphere are determined mainly by the life cycle
of plants and their total amount in a particular territory or aquatory. Vegetation and, light and temperature-humidity conditions largely determine intra-annual course and spatial distribution of concentration of CH4 in the atmosphere over Bulgaria. Aerosol optical depth depends on both natural and anthropogenic factors. Intra-annual course is determined mainly by natural factors, the most important being vertical motions in atmosphere and presence or absence of snow cover. Inter-annual tendencies in the amount of aerosols are determined by the above mentioned natural factors but also by anthropogenic factors. Spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth depends mainly on the anthropogenic factor in summer and on natural factors in winter. All three studied greenhouse gases have a statistically significant positive trend in the beginning of the 21st century, which means enhanced greenhouse effect and a corresponding increase in air temperature. Results of this study show that the increase in carbon dioxide and methane is an order of magnitude greater than that of water vapor, but on the other hand water vapor has a much stronger greenhouse effect. The decrease in aerosols, which is statistically significant, also leads to an increase in near surface air temperature, which increase is mainly driven by shortwave radiation fluxes, unlike greenhouse gases, which affect mainly longwave radiation fluxes. The trend in aerosols is comparable to that in the specific humidity. The main conclusion is that in the early 21st century the trends in all studied atmospheric constituents lead to an increase in air temperature of near surface layer.
Keywords: greenhouse gases, aerosols, Bulgaria, trends, spatial distribution
Iliya Trifonov – STATISTICAL MODELING AND PROJECTIONS OF THE PRECIPITATION ALONG THE BULGARIAN BLACK SEA COAST, BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF THREE REPRESENTATIVE WEATHER STATIONS
A statistical modeling of precipitation at three representative stations located on the Black Sea coast was made in this study. Precipitation data for stations Constanta, Varna and Burgas were used. Statistical models were based on multiple linear regression. Data from 43 global climate models, according to historical peri- od of the study (1950-2005) and the period 2006-2099 were used for constructing statistical models. The data source for global climate models was project CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). Projections based on scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 were made for the following future periods: 2006-2036, 2037-2067 and 2068-2099. The projections based on scenarios indicate that mean monthly precipitation sums will increase mainly in January, September and October at all three stations. A decrease of precipitation is expected mainly in April, June and November. Mean annual precipitation sums according to scenario RCP 2.6 is expected to decrease slightly until the middle of the XXI century, then to increase slightly towards the end of the XXI century. A small decrease of mean annual pre- cipitation is expected according to the scenario RCP4.5 with about 8% (Constanta) and 7% (Burgas) compared to the period 2006-2015. A stable decrease of annual pre- cipitation sums is expected according to scenarios RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5, with about 13-25% towards the end of the century, compared to the period 2006-2015.
Keywords: statistical modeling, global climate models, projections, precipitation, Bul- garian Black sea coast
Georgi Alexiev, Marinela Agalareva, Georgi Jelev – A GEODYNAMIC MODEL OF QUATERNARY TECTONIC PROCESSES WITHIN THE SOFIA SEISMIC AND TECTONIC ZONE
On the basis of a structural-geomorphological analysis of the deformation of the benchmark initial denudation surface area, the supporting foothill Gelasien and early Pleistocene inclined levels, the spectrum of river terraces, the changes in the thickness of Neogene and Quaternary lithologycally stratigraphic and lithologycally facial vertical sections and the stratification of ancient and young alluvial-diluvial-proluvial mantle trains, the network of contrasting tectonic deformations which underly the pattern of block-mosaic morphological structure of the central segment of the Sofia seismic-tectonic zone has been identified. In morphotectonic aspect, Sofia seismic and tectonic area is within the scope of the high west block foot of the Kraishte-Srednogorie morphotectonic zone. In the current plastic of the Earth crust, the foot is demonstrated as an integrated and deep, peneplanationed, oro-structural pedestal. In its morphotectonic style, a complex block-mosaic structure has been diagnosed, which is determined by the presence of several major submeridionally-oriented fault structures: Kolosh, Tran-Kosharevo, Pernik and Zadbalkan. These major fault structures outline the spatial parameters of a system of sub-parallelly alternating oro-structural chains with graben depressions and valleys between the mountains. The northern oro-structural frame of the seismic and tectonic zone is outlined by the massive segment of the West Balkanide horst-block morphostructure. The central place in the internal structure of the studied area is occupied by the linearly withdrawn from the southeast to the northwest Ruy-Plana swell-shaped horst-imaged ascent, with relatively stable mode of slow and moderate positive neo-tectonic deformations. The southern fence-frame of the central segment of the Sofia seismic and tectonic zone is formed by the asymmetric Verila, Kolosh and Zemenska Mountains’ oro- structural morpho block. In the spaces between the central swell-shaped ascent and the southern and northern fence-frame of the studied area are – unilaterally imposed – the Radomir and Sofia graben valleys. The main geotectonic process, which determines the general regularities in the spatial location of the earthquakes, is the dominant regional subductional extensional and transforming mode after Early Paleogene stage of the development of the research area. In this background, within the frames of the researched area, the basic seismogenerating morphostructures appear to be the unilaterally set and asymmetric graben morphostructures: the ones of Radomir, Sofia and Pernik. The basic energy of the impulse tectonic processes is generated by the appearance of tensions of extension and active subequatorial and sub-parallel abruptions, and as a result of it – a mechanism of step-like differentiation of their hollow foundations occur most often. Quaternary geodynamic localities fixed by contrast listric fault deformations are formed. A map of the spatial values of Quaternary tectonic processes and linear abruptions along the Early Quaternary and especially Holocene listric faults – the ones of Kalishtе, Kolosh, Izvor, Chervena Mogila, Radomir, North Vitosha, Iskar, Bezden-Gorna Malina and Rudartsi-Divotino fault-flexure zone, etc. has been drawn up. The values of deformations along those faults range between 40 and 100-120 m. The highest values of deformations are found along the length of the fault planes of Kolosh, Izvor, Kalishte, Bezden-Gorna Malina, North Lozen and North Vitosha, as well as the Iskar submeridional fault. On the basis of the morphotectonic model, a direct spatial and dynamic relation between the seismic potential on one hand, and the Quaternary extensional mechanism of formation of the block-mosaic structure in the central segment of the Sofia seismic zone on the other, has been found.
Keywords: morphotectonics, geomorphology, neotectonics, geodynamics, listric faults
Jana Zapletalová, Dilyana Stefanova, Antonín Vaishar, Petar Stefanov, Petr Dvořák, Emilia Tcherkezovа – SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE RURAL AREAS: CASE STUDIES OF THE MORAVIAN KARST (CZECH REPUBLIC) AND THE DEVETASHKO PLATO (BULGARIA)
The paper is aimed at an analysis and comparison of two karst areas. Among common problems of both territories are: sewage of untreated waste water from settlements and industrial plants to the underground space, infiltration of fertilizers and pesticides to underground spaces during torrential rains, washing away the topsoil into the underground space. The main difference consist in geographical positions. Whereas Moravian Karts is situated in the vicinity of the regional center Brno and is partly a subject of suburbanization, Devetashko Plato marked depopulation tenden- cies. From it follows that Moravian Karst is under pressure of urbanization and tour- ism which compete with landscape protection. On the other side, Devetashko Plato area is not socially sustainable. These conditions create different approaches for the future management. In any case, the imaginations about the quantitative development should be abandoned. In both the cases the territories have to ensure sustainability in all three pillars: environmental, social and economic.
Keywords: social development, rural sensitive areas, Devetashko Plato, Bulgaria, Mora- vian karst, Czech republic
Kristina Gartsiyanova – ASSESSMENT OF LAND COVER AND LAND USE IN THE BASIN OF THE OSAM RIVER USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
In accordance with the main aim of the article, applied methodology is based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis and assessment of land cover and land use in the basin of the Osam river has been made according to Corine Land Cover (third level). As a result in the area are defined 22 classes and they are represented by: anthropogenic sites, agricultural lands, forests and semi-natural areas, wetlands and water bodies. The land cover and land use in the watershed of the Osam river is closely related to economic and demographic situation in the municipalities in the area.
Keywords: land cover, land use, remote sensing, GIS, Osam river
Nadezhda Ilieva, Krasimir Asenov – FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROCESS OF SPATIAL SEGREGATION (THE CASE OF ARMAN MAHALA, PLOVDIV) (Part one)
One of the main challenges which modern European cities are about to face in the coming decades are associated with the increasing social inequalities and socio-spatial polarization, which are directly related to the processes of integration. These processes are the result of a continuous interaction between specific spatial patterns and social, economic, political and institutional transformations on one hand, and the behavior of different actors and the options they are provided with, on the other. The focus of many studies is put on the characteristics of the space, which affect the formation of certain opportunities and behavior of the population inhabiting that space, and vice versa – the way the behavior of the population and the social interactions create and reshape the urban space. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the factors exerting a decisive influence on the formation and development of those interactions, as well as to estimate to what extent the new urban realities will affect the different categories of population, their daily spatial behavior, their inclusion or exclusion from the society in time and space. Urban geography, in recent years has focused on research related to the physical spatial structure of the city. One of the issues that relates to this type of research are the areas in the urban morphology occupied by Roma neighborhoods, the factors that influence the formation and spatial development of such neighbourhoods, their location and interaction with the different functional areas of the urban space, the time of their occurrence, the dynamics and changes of their location through different time periods. The first part of the paper represents a review of the literature on the topic, while various theories, concepts and perspectives (of European and American scientists mostly) concerning the factors influencing the formation of different patterns of spatial segregation, have been discussed. Thus, the theoretical basis of the study has been justified. Furthermore, a methodology for studying the factors influencing the processes of spatial segregation has been designed, the methods and approaches to gathering the necessary information have been revealed. A brief characteristic of the geographical location of the Roma “Arman mahala” neighborhood in Plovdiv follows, as well as an assessment of the natural factors for its formation and development. The second part of the paper intends to clarify, grade and analyze the demographic, socio-economic, psychological, political, institutional factors influencing the formation and the spatial development of the Roma “Armand mahala” neighborhood in Plovdiv.
Keywords: spatial segregation, Roma ethnic group, factors influencing the process of spatial segregation, Arman mahala neighborhood – Plovdiv
Petru Bunduc, Tatiana Bunduc, Vadim Cujba – CONSIDERATIONS ON THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OF POPULATION FROM BOTOSANI COUNTY (MOLDOVA) IN MADRID CITY (SPAIN)
The purpose of this article is to analyze the international migration characteris- tics of the population in Botosani county who emigrated to Madrid city after 1990. The international migration from Botosani has produced a demographic transforma- tion of the entire county level. Today is observed a beginning aging population in the eastern part of the county and the birth rate and marriage are reduced, resulting a slight population decline. However, we can mention that, if the international migra- tion had not intervened, Botosani county would faced with an obvious economic and social crisis.
Keywords: international migration, temporary migration, Madrid city, labor force, Bot- osani county.
Kiril Kaloyanov – CYCLING TOURISM ROUTES AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSNATIONAL
COOPERATION WITHIN THE LOWER BASIN OF THE DANUBE RIVER
Cycling tourism is gaining attention as a form of sustainable tourism offering the opportunity to travel long-distances with minimum carbon impact on the environ- ment. Cycling routes connect different regions and may extend from local to transna- tional scale covering vast territories and unifying them under various themes. Danube cycling route is part of the trans-European network of cycling routes (EuroVelo) and within the Upper basin of the Danube is a successful tourism product. Being iden- tified by the European Union cycling tourism development is a newly introduced priority with strong potential for generating transnational relations among different stakeholders. As a result, a number of cross-border and transnational projects have been implemented with the financial support of EU funds. The current paper aims at providing an overview of cycling tourism potential and development level within the Middle and Lower Danube region with a focus on Danube cycling route. A compar- ative analysis of countries where the route passes is used to define the current status and propose recommendations to future initiatives and cooperation between stake- holders involved in development of cycling tourism routes.
Keywords: cycling routes, sustainable mobility, cycling tourism, regional development, transnational cooperation
Desislava Hineva – BULGARIAN LEGISLATION ON COMPLAINTS IN TOURISM – GUIDELINES FOR UPDATE
Effective complaint handling in tourism has a positive impact in the form of building customer loyalty and generating financial benefits for tourism business. On the other hand, tourist complaints might be a major source of information for regula- tory authorities about the state of tourism and the key areas that need to be improved. The regular collection and analysis of the information about the registered complaints is a useful practice for identifying problems and possible solutions in terms of im- plementation of tourism legislation. Complaint management in tourism business pre- sumably has to be consistent with the legal framework in Bulgaria, and respectively in the European Union. The changing environment in which tourism business has to operate determines the need for update of tourism legislation, especially in the part relating to the protection of consumer rights. These changes are necessary due to the detection of some discrepancies in Bulgarian legislation which are to the detriment of travelers as well. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the need for change in the current legal framework in tourism. This will be achieved by highlighting the most common types of tourist complaints in Bulgaria; tracking the complaint han- dling procedures; revealing some restrictions affecting essentially consumer rights; reviewing the forthcoming harmonization with the newly- approved changes in the European tourism legislation and outlining some key principles which might serve as a base for a more effective complaint handling legal procedure.
Keywords: tourism legislation, restrictions, update, complaint handling, key principles
Ivanka Boteva – 80 YEARS SINCE THE IVTH CONGRESS OF THE SLAVIC GEOGRAPHERS AND ETHNOGRAPHERS – SOFIA – 1936
The paper celebrates the 80th anniversary of the conduct of the IVth Congress of Slavic Geographers and Ethnographers. The event took place in Sofia from 16th to 21st August 1936 under the auspices of HM Tsar Boris III. The congress was attended by 323 delegates from Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Germany, Holland, France, Germany, Finland, Romania and Bulgaria. A total of 140 scientific papers and announcements were presented, of which 103 were on geographical issues and 37 papers – on ethnography. The program of the congress was very rich – a scientific part, organized in eight sections, field tours, exhibitions and cultural events. The importance of this major scientific forum was paramount for the development of the Bulgarian science and the raising of the prestige of Bulgaria.