ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Rumiana Vatseva – Basic spatial concepts and their representation in GIS
Georgi Zhelezov, Boris Kolev – Zones of spatial determination of the countries in Europe
Krasimir Asenov – The global ghettο – urban hypertrophy. Realia and Fictions
Boris Kolev – International legal status of the Black Sea
Svetla Georgieva – Human capital assessment in rural areas of South Central Bulgaria
Emilia Tcherkezova – GIS-based landform identification in Archaro-Orsoyska lowland (Northwestern Bulgaria)
Kalin Seymenov – Assessment of physicochemical status and water quality of the Tsibritsa river
Georgi Zhelezov – Reconstruction models of dynamic evolution of Svistovsko-Belenska wetland system
Mina Baghirova – Economic-geographical problems of effective organization of economy and controlling of distribution of the population in the southern border of the Republic of Azerbaijan (in the example of Lankaran-Astara economic region)
Rumiana Vatseva – BASIC SPATIAL CONCEPTS AND THEIR REPRESENTATION IN GIS
Scientific spatial concepts provoke much discussion and are important for the formalization of knowledge and the development of classification systems of geographical objects. This article reviews and critically analyzes the scientific literature with a view to clarifying the content of fundamental spatial concepts and their representation in a geographic information system (GIS) when developing geospatial data. Thus, based on widely known significant publications (Golledge, 2002; Bader, Glennon, 2009; Janelle, Goodchild, 2011; UCSB, 2018; De Smith et al., 2018), this article describes key theoretical geographical spatial concepts (Location, Distance, Neighborhood and Region, Network, Scale, Spatial Heterogeneity, Spatial Dependence, Objects and Surfaces), as well as their use in GIS.
Keywords: spatial concepts, GIS, geospatial data
Georgi Zhelezov, Boris Kolev – ZONES OF SPATIAL DETERMINATION OF THE COUNTRIES IN EUROPE
The present research observed the problems related with zones with spatial determination of the countries in Europe. The first aspect of the investigation is analysis of historical, economic, political and psychological factors for development of the processes of integration in Europe. The second aspect of the article is related with analysis of present economical parameters, which reflected to the spatial determination of the zones with integrated countries in European continent. The analysis revealed a certain differentiation of countries in Europe. There is a core of high GDP and GDP per capita in three areas – Western Europe (Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Switzerland and Austria), Northern Europe (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Iceland) and Southwest Europe (Italy and Spain). These areas can be assigned a specific gravity zone of the other countries in Europe – 1. Towards Western Europe – countries in Central and Southeastern Europe (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, and others); 2. Towards Northern Europe – Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania); 3.
Towards Southwestern Europe – Portugal and Greece.
Keywords: space, determination, Europe
Krasimir Asenov – THE GLOBAL GΗΕΤΤΟ – URBAN HYPERTROPHY. REALIA AND FICTIONS
Thе paper attempts present a different perspective on urban processes, which are undoubtedly one of the main factors for the ghetto phenomenon to occur. Shedding light on certain fragments of the global ghetto phenomenon, on the other hand, allows the positioning of some of the Bulgarian ghettoized urban structures on the global map of world slums. Defined usually as pockets of poverty, areas of invisible geography, slums, ghettos,
etc., these loci of the city are distinguished by their diversity and vitality. Located along the entire oikumene, those city quarters have distinctive features through which they can be typologized as urban structures which share a certain set of common features. Undoubtedly, ghettoes have properties that allow them to be an integral part of the binary oppositions, such as “city – ghetto”, “center – periphery”, “poor – rich”, “culture – subculture or counter culture”.
Keywords: global ghetto; slums; urban hypertrophy; ghettoized urban structures
Boris Kolev – INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STATUS OF THE BLACK SEA
The Republic of Bulgaria is a maritime state. It is among the maritime countries of the European Union. This geographical fact enables it to have maritime communications with all other coastal states, which is of great importance for the development of maritime commercial shipping. Maritime communications have greater commercial, geopolitical and geostrategic importance for our country as well as for our partners in the European Union
and NATO. The article presents the basic legal rules of national and international maritime law governing the use of those maritime spaces on which part of the national sovereignty of the country is exercised. Particular attention was paid to the legal regulation of the Black Sea straits of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, through which, like Bulgaria and other Black Sea countries, they connect with the oceans. The basic concepts used in international maritime law are also described. Knowing, even briefly, this legal question would be of benefit to scientists, both geographers and economists, regionalists and others.
Keywords: maritime law, maritime spaces, Black Sea straits, international maritime law
Svetla Georgieva – HUMAN CAPITAL ASSESSMENT IN RURAL AREAS OF SOUTH CENTRAL BULGARIA
This paper examines the human capital in the rural areas of South Central Bulgaria and the impact of various factors on the supply of human capital at the local community level (municipalities). The objective of the study is to analyse and evaluate the state of the human capital in the rural areas of the South Central Region (Yuzhen tcentralen rajon – NUTS 2). Human capital is a concept of economic theory, which represents a particular form of the capital, namely – the knowledge and skills, competencies and qualifications of people. This kind of capital is the driving force of economic growth, productivity, income, as well as the overall improvement of the individual’s well-being. The territorial scope of
the study covers the municipalities within the South Central Region of Bulgaria, which are designated as rural areas for the purposes of rural development policy. The comparative geographical analysis is based on two groups of education indicators: 1) ones that take into account the level of education of the population; 2) ones related to the process of generating human capital at young age. Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of objects (in this case – municipalities) whit similar values of the selected indicators. The results indicate that there are five main clusters, identified depending on the variation in the applied variables. The qualitative assessment of the human capital is a result of a comparative analysis between each cluster on one hand, and the mean values for rural areas in the South Central Region on the other. The groups (clusters) of municipalities with indicator values close to, or above the average for rural areas, have medium to high quality of human capital. The analysis confirms the correlation between the degree of economic development of the municipalities and the state of their human capital. However, this correlation is not always valid, as the available human capital of some municipalities remains unused, due to structural changes in the local
Keywords: human capital, rural areas, education-based approach
Emilia Tcherkezova – GIS-BASED LANDFORM IDENTIFICATION IN ARCHARO-ORSOYSKA LOWLAND (NORTHWESTERN BULGARIA)
The article presents the results of GIS-based terrain analysis for identification and extraction of relevant landforms and landform elements in Archaro-Orsoyska lowland (Northwestern Bulgaria). The methodology used includes calculation of local (e.g. slope and aspect) and compound geomorphometric variables (e.g. vertical distance to channel network, distance to channel network, topographic wetness index, and others), as well as
landform elements such as valleys, depressions, slope elements, ridges, and summits. Spatial analysis methods such as zonal statistics, overlay functions, and visualization of obtained results, were used for identification of the landforms in the investigated area. To outline the landform elements was used the concept of geomophons (geomorphologic phonotypes) (Neteler, Mitasova, 2007; Jasiewicz, Stepinski, 2013; Stepinski, Jasiewicz, 2011) giving lookup distance L (in meters) and flatness threshold t (in degrees) to allow extractions of landforms and their elements with different sizes. Based on the methodological approach used in this study, the following main landforms in the Archaro-Orsoyska lowland were identified:
natural loess leveés, flat and negative relief forms in floodplains, abandoned channels, sand bars, artificial dikes and embankments, remnants of river terraces, landslides, hilly loess accumulative surfaces, undulated through rills and dray valleys. The obtained results were compared with previous geomorphologic studies and satellite images, and will be used for a reconnaissance survey and geomorphologic mapping in order to create a geomorphological classification of genetic types of deposits and landforms in the study area.
Keywords: geographic information systems (GIS), digital elevation model (DEM), landforms, Archaro-Orsoyska lowland
Kalin Seymenov – ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL STATUS AND WATER QUALITY OF THE TSIBRITSA RIVER
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC aims to achieve both a good ecological and physicochemical status of all surface water bodies, and a good chemical and quantitative status of groundwater resources by 2021. Currently, the implementation of this goal appears to be a difficult task. Despite the great efforts made by the stakeholders in the last decades, the majority of Europe’s water bodies still do not meet the requirements. On
a European scale, around 38 per cent of water pollution is caused by chemical and organic agricultural wastes. In addition, the unregulated waste disposal from livestock farms into streams and lakes is also a serious problem. Nutrient enrichment causing eutrophication is the main effect from these unsustainable anthropogenic practices. Although during the last years the water bodies in Bulgaria tend to maintain relatively good hydro-ecological status, the discharge of agricultural chemicals and the disposal of household wastes remain the main polluting activities, particularly in rural areas. This study presents an assessment of the physicochemical properties and water quality of the Tsibritsa River (NW Bulgaria) – a small lowland stream, situated in an extensive agricultural region with cultivation of cereal crops. The main river body springs from the Fore-Balkans and flows as a right tributary into the Danube River within the Danube Plain. The length of the Tsibritsa River is 87.5 km and its drainage basin covers an area of 933.6 km2. The catchment area is covered by arable lands polluting the surface water bodies due to the discharge of soil runoff containing fertilizers, manures and pesticides. Furthermore, the release of untreated wastewater from livestock farms and domestic sources in the small settlements without urban sewerage systems is also problematic. The input data includes information about ten physicochemical water quality parameters – pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO2), ammonium nitrogen (N-NH4), nitrite nitrogen (N-NO2), nitrate
nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (N-tot), orthophosphates (P-PO4), total phosphorus (P-tot) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), measured at one water sampling point located near to the river’s mouth. A total of 60 samples for each variable, recorded during the period 2003–2017 have been used. The analysis has been conducted in compliance with the reference values stated in the National Regulatory Framework (Regulation 4/2012). The general water quality status has been determined according to the “one out – all out” principle, by the element with the worst status out of all physicochemical elements. The descriptive statistics (mean, minimum and maximum values) and a correlation matrix between each pair of two variables have been computed. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for an overall assessment has also been applied. Its calculation is conducted according to the values for “Good status”, recommended for surface water bodies of type R8 (Regulation 4/2012). Results show increased concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (NNO 3), total nitrogen (N-tot), total phosphorus (P-tot) and orthophosphates (P-PO4) (up to 40 times above the threshold values for “Good quality status”, stated in Regulation 4/2012). Over 50 per cent of these variables have been assessed to be of “Moderate status”. Those results can be explained by the excessive use of chemical substances in agriculture and the release of
untreated wastes from livestock farms into the river channel. At the same time, some of the physicochemical parameters have been assessed as ones of “Excellent status”, e.g. EC and DO2. The correlation matrix between various variables shows the following strong, positive relationships (r>0.9): “N-NO3 – N-tot” and “P-PO4 – P-tot”. These physicochemical parameters are indicative for organic pollution. According to the “one out – all out” principle and due to the significant excesses in the values of nitrates and phosphates, the overall physicochemical status of the Tsibritsa River is assessed as “Moderate”. The annual values of CCME WQI vary from 38.9 (2004) to 74.0 (2015), which means the water is “severely impaired” and “slightly
polluted”, respectively. The calculation of CCME WQI shows an overall worsening of water quality in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, because of the failure of six physicochemical parameters (N-NH4, N-NO3, N-tot, P-PO4, P-tot, BOD5), the status is categorized as “Poor”, meaning water quality is impaired and the conditions usually depart from the natural levels. On the other hand, in 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, due to the failure of two or three parameters (N-NO3, N-tot, P-PO4), the CCME WQI indicates “Fair status”, which means water quality is usually protected and the conditions sometimes depart from the desirable levels. Although a positive trend in water quality parameters is detected after 2011, the CCME WQI generally shows “Marginal” and “Poor” ratings. In order to achieve better physicochemical conditions and to maintain good water quality of the Tsibritsa River, the adoption of sustainable land use practices and the construction of urban wastewater treatment plants are recommended.
Keywords: water quality, water pollution, CCME WQI, Tsibritsa River
Georgi Zhelezov – RECONSTRUCTION MODELS OF THE SVISHTOVSKO-BELENSKA WETLAND SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
The present research is related to the problem of spatio-temporal transformation of the Svishtovsko-Belenska wetland system. The investigation is based on the information generated from old maps covering different time periods. Using these data reconstruction models of the wetland system have been developed.
Keywords: reconstruction model, wetland, system
Mina Baghirova – ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS OF EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMY AND CONTROLLİNG OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION IN THE SOUTHERN BORDER OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (IN THE EXAMPLE OF LANKARAN-ASTARA ECONOMIC REGION)
Effective territorial organization of farms is a key factor for sustainable development of the regions, development of settlements, expansion of relations among them, involvement of natural resources in the economic turnover, promotion of social and cultural services to the population. Despite many years of reforms to overcome the difficulties of the transition period, it is not possible to increase the share of regions in the socio-economic development of the country.
These processes also manifest themselves in the economic region of Lankaran-Astara in the southern part of the country. Poor supply of natural resources, inefficient organization of the agricultural sector, and high rates of population growth over the years due to natural growth have caused serious problems in the creation of work places and the organization of social and cultural services. This situation has also contributed to migration. In order to solve them, it is important to implement large-scale socio-economic measures and to develop their scientific and theoretical basis.
Keywords: socio-economic development, economic region, transition period, natural and economic potential, economic reforms, mineral resources, demographic development, agrarian reforms, industrial production.