ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Orlin Dimitrov, Dimitar Parlichev – NATURAL-ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF THE DOBRUDZHA COAST AND AQUATORY, AND MEASURES FOR THEIR SOLUTION
Dobrich region is the most vulnerable and the most affected by the sea contact of all regions along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. It is paradoxical that given the current situation almost nothing is being done by the authorities in charge to solve the acute and urgent problems, obviously due to their lack of understanding of the problems and even more so – of the ways and the means of solving those issues. The current circumstances require motivation to face the most imperative and urgent problems related to that part of the Black Sea coast, as well as indication of the possibilities for their solution and expected results. This way the planning authorities in the region will probably be encouraged to engage in the implementation of the relevant projects while there is still EU financial support and cross-border cooperation with Romania.
Keywords: security, nature protection, cultural-historical heritage, tourism, recreation, utilization
Kristina Gartsiyanova – LAND USE AS A FACTOR FOR THE CHANGE OF WATER QUALITY IN THE OSAM RIVER BASIN
The article assesses the impact of land use on the change of the water quality in the Osam river basin. At four monitoring points the values of ten indicators are analyzed: dissolved oxygen, hydrogen (pH), electrical conductivity, ammonium nitrate (N-NH4), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), nitrite nitrogen (P-ortho-PO4), total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), which are compared with their reference values, regulated in Ordinance № H-4/2012 for characterization of surface water. A statistical analysis of data from land surveying for land cover and land use in 1990, 2006 and 2012 was made. Geographical information systems (GIS) analyzed the spatial distribution and the quantitative characteristics of the land use in the catchment area of Osam river.
Keywords: land use, water quality, remote sensing, GIS, Osam River
Yoana Sandinska – INTERACTIVE-WEB MAPPING OF “BULGARKA” NATURE PARK
The origin of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) dates back to the penetration of Information Technologies (IT) in the geography field. Undoubtedly, the greatest challenge for GIS specialists is to store, process, and visualize large-scale geospatial databases for the shortest possible time, including building queries for maximum accurate representation of ultimate cartographic products. The classical GIS projects focus mainly on storing, editing and integrating geospatial data for analysis and visualization. The Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) itself expands the coverage of traditional GIS activities by adding a new focus – managing and distributing geospatial data at organizational, administrational, national, continental and global levels. In terms of restricted access, into two main groups are subdivided the software applications: open coded and commercially purchased. In case of a more in-depth classification, are added two further transitional categories. One contains free resource installation without providing programming code, while the other includes paid functional improvements to the open source software package. Beyond consideration of the necessity and possibility to purchase a geospatial software product, it is also advisable to be analyzed the functional tools used to present the geospatial database in a web environment. In the provided methods of mapping, visualizing, analyzing, creating, manipulating, converting, sharing, accessing and querying is expressed the evaluation criteria. On the one hand, the future of GIS is in the reasonable balanced streaming integration of adequate computer literacy in the field of information technologies, and routine geospatial experience in the field of geographic information systems. On the other hand, the potential development of GIS depends exclusively on the targeted expansion of custom volunteer activities. At present, the two main opportunities for achieving this goal refer to the stimulation of open-sourcing and crowd-sourcing freely accessible volunteer initiatives. Thus, as a research area, part of Natura 2000 protected territories, is selected the “Bulgarka” Nature Park, because besides the published maps, illustrative materials and available documents on the web so far, there is still no accessible to the public web-based GIS application for biodiversity and tourism.
Keywords: Interactive Mapping, Web GIS, “Bulgarka” Nature park.
Stefan Genchev, Rumiana Vatseva – ASSESSMENT AND MAPPING OF LAND COVER AND LAND USE IN NATURA 2000 PROTECTED SITES USING REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR THE PERIOD 1990-2012
Remote sensing proves to be a powerful component of environmental monitoring, analysis and policy development. Satellite imagery is a major source of information for characterising the latest land use and land cover (LULC) status with high temporal and spatial accuracy. The aim of this study is to assess the LULC status for 1990, 2000 and 2012 of the NATURA 2000 sites “Dragoman” ans “Rayanovtsi”. This task is part of the optimization of the NATURA 2000 network. The obtained LULC information is presented in a digital map and statistics
Keywords: Remote Sensing, mapping, land cover, land use, statistical analysis, Natura 2000
Peter Nojarov – INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE OVER BULGARIA ON SURFACE RADIATION FLUXES AND AIR TEMPERATURE
This study determines the influence of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere over Bulgaria on different radiation fluxes at Earth‘s surface, and on near surface air tem- perature. The research period is 09.2002 – 12.2015. Data for observed air temperature in Bulgaria, specific humidity at different levels, content of CO2 and CH4 in atmosphere, aerosol optical depth and different radiation fluxes at surface level were processed using statistical methods. The results show that air temperature in near surface layer is determined mainly by upward longwave radiation. This radiation flux in turn depends on downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes. Greenhouse gases determine downward longwave radiation flux and aerosols – the two shortwave radiation fluxes (downward and upward). The influence of aerosols on air temperature is complex and greater than assumed so far, their effect being prolonged in time covering a period of at least two months. Thus, aerosols are the second most important factor that influences air temperature. The main greenhouse gas is water vapor, but based on the available data it is difficult to estimate how much it affects air temperature and how much air temperature affects water vapor content in atmosphere. The second most important greenhouse gas is CO2, but it is the third factor influencing air temperature. The role of CH4 in the greenhouse effect remains difficult to assess due to the revealed significant inversely proportional relationship between this gas and water vapor. Increased content of
water vapor leads to an increased content of hydroxyl radical in atmosphere, which in turn significantly reduces the content of CH4 in the air.
Keywords: greenhouse gases, aerosols, air temperature, radiation fluxes, Bulgaria
Dimitar Parlichev – MORPHOSPHERE AND MORPHOSPHERE BASINS
In the course of the development of geotectonics and geomorphology, the differences in the object and the subject of study of the two sciences are more clearly outlined. Geotectonics is interested in the lithosphere in terms of affecting the asthenosphere by upwards and sidewards radiation of energy and matter, and the effect of this influence. Geomorphology is mainly concerned with the influence of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and cryosphere by gravity on the top of the lithosphere, downwards and sidewards, and the effect of this influence. In geology, the contact area of the hydrospere, atmosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere with the lithosphere is known as the hypergenesis area. In geomorphology this area should be perceived as a morphosphere and a subject of geomorphology, as the relief determines to a large extent the depth and, to a decisive extent, the motion vectors of the matter, which is commensurate with that in the lithosphere. According to the latest research, the vectors are consistent with the modern trends of differentiated motions in the Earth’s crust. By not counteracting but facilitating them, which is explained by the theory of isostasis. This consistency of endo- and exogenesis occurs within the basin (lacustrine, marine, oceanic) that falls entirely within the area of hypergenesis and should be perceived in geomorphology as morphospheric basins and the area itself as a morphosphere. This allows to formulate the new paradigm of geomorphology: the construction and development of the Earth’s crust results from the interaction of two systems – the global tectospheric system of moving lithospheric plates and the global morphosystem of moving morphospheric basins, which are subject to geotechnology and geomorphology research.
Keywords: lithosphere, morphosphere, lithosperic plates, morphosperic basins, radiation, gravity
Alexander Fediy – FAMILY-MARITAL STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD IN THE SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY OF UKRAINE
The article is devoted to the problem of studying demographic facts and processes, in particular, the family – marital structure of population, in school geography of Ukraine. The significant need for students to study this topic is linked with social, economic, political and ecological processes from their own and public points of view. The article deals with concepts of «family», «marriage» and «family-marital structure», characteristics of modern types of marriage ties in different countries. Herewith, the main attention is paid to the importance of forming students’ attitude to a family as the most constant and flexible social institute in the conditions of world global transformations and Ukrainian demographic crisis. This research was carried out within the performance of the problem to form the demographic concepts in schoolchildren’s minds during the study of social-economic geography.
Keywords: family, marriage, family-marital structure of the population