2021, Vol. 2

ISSN 0204-7209
ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
Volume 2
Sofia 2021




The northwestern border shafts: the Lom, the Hayredin and the Ostrov shaft, represent a combination of two interconnected parallel segments: a moat and a shaft, stretching in a submeridional direction between the valleys of the Lom River and the Iskar River with a total length of over 100 km. Numerous publications are dedicated to those shafts, while the first field research and mapping were carried out by Karel Skorpil in the early twentieth century. The first Bulgarian-led archaeological transversal excavations of the Hayredin shaft were carried out in the late 1970s by Rasho Rashev.

The length of the Hayredin shaft is about 25 km. To the north it starts from the high Danube River valley macroslope in the vicinity of Killer Bair locality, 6 km west of Kozloduy. To the south, in a meridional direction, the shaft crosses the waterless plain of Moesia, where rescue archeological excavations were carried out at the eleventh kilometer. The southern end of the shaft reaches the landuse areas of the villages of Hayredin and Manastirishte, where old Bulgarian settlements existed. From that point on, the route of the shaft branches off and is further on lost in the alluvial lowland of the Ogosta River valley.

In 2019, in connection with an investment project for expansion of the gas transmission infrastructure of the Republic of Bulgaria, it was necessary to conduct an urgent rescue archaeological study. The study took place at Site 25/2006, within the landuse area of the village of Butan, Kozloduy municipality, or at the intersection of the submeridional Hayredin shaft and the gas pipeline coming from Eastern Thrace towards Central Europe. A complete geomagnetic survey was performed in the designated study area, in order to establish the presence or absence of any excavated structures in or under the embankment of the shaft (Fig. 3). The results clearly showed the presence of two linear anomalies outlining the rounded shoulders of the fossilized moat located between them. An isometric anomaly was registered in the very SW corner of the easement (squares G/10 – H/10).

The fortification facility consists of two elements – a shaft and a moat (Fig. 9, 10 and 11). The height of the shaft is about 3.50 m and is the result of morphodynamic processes and human activity. No cultural layer was registered during the excavations. The stratigraphic sequence of the layers shows that the embankment of the shaft is formed by a sandy loess and a grayish-white intermediate layer, where infiltration of pockets of chernozem and soil layer is observed. The ridge of the shaft is formed by loess and soil-turf. Judging by the stratigraphic sequence, it can be said that only the redeposited loess from the highest point of the ridge is the result of any anthropogenic activity.

The formation of the shaft itself is a result of active geomorphological processes and anthropogenic influences, or the genesis of the shaft is associated with the presence of a natural ravine or subsidence of the terrain, further fossilized by denudation-accumulation processes in the neighboring terrains. This evidence and conclusion is confirmed by observations of all incisions made. The outlines of the shaft are marked by a horizontal bottom and V-shaped rounded walls. The volume parameters of the moat are outlined by the soil volumes of the two layers: of pale whitish soils and a chernozem soil layer shuffled off the ridge of the shaft.

Keywords: Hayredin fortification shaft, structural-geomorphological analysis, paleogeographic reconstructions, chronology, geophysical survey



Studying of the temporal distribution of earthquakes is very important for understanding the physics of the earthquake generation process. In the present study the time distribution of the fore-aftershock sequences before and after the 2020 Plovdiv earthquake, with moment magnitude MW4.5 is analyzed. Foreshocks are one of the few well-documented precursors of large earthquakes. Aftershocks are defined as seismicity above the background activity following a main shock. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster in space and time) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. We analyze the temporal pattern of earthquake distribution of the foreshock and aftershock sequences of the main event. The temporal distribution of foreshocks shows non-random features. Although dominated by the classic power law decay in time, the aftershocks suggest the existence of secondary aftershock sequence. The attenuation of aftershock activity is well described by the modified Omori formula. Aftershock sequence is best modelled by the combination of one ordinary and two secondary aftershock sequences. Transition from aftershock activity to background seismicity is observed about 62 days after the main shock.

Keywords: foreshocks, aftershocks, temporal distribution, city of Plovdiv



This research is devoted to a subject, beyond the control of the conceptual features of the critical geopolitics, on the basis of which is the understanding of the space. The problem the article is devoted to is connected with an identification of the geopolitical image of Bulgaria as a result of its interaction with the world outside. To achieve the objective, the geopolitical vision of its space in post-structural dimension, through the prism of the understanding of the spatial identity is covered. The methodology is based on the phenomenological approach through the implementation of discourse analysis on the basis of representation of the spatial reality and interpretation of its understanding. The major segments of belonging, which express the spatial identity of Bulgaria, are consistently analysed: Proto Bulgarian ethno-genetic root; Orthodox culture; Slavic ethnic and linguistic belonging; Balkan and European identity. A special attention is paid to the image that Bulgaria forms due to its geopolitical position. Through analysis of its advantages and disadvantages are revealed important stereotypes, forming the mental card of the country at the international level. On the basis of the problems which have occurred from the geopolitical image of Bulgaria, a strategic approach is offered in order to improve its political image and statute and to find a direct reflection in the standing up for the national interest.

Keywords: critical geopolitics, geopolitical image, spatial identity, stereotypes, Bulgaria



The growing interest in the cultural heritage and the increasingly tangible cultural motivation of tourists in their travels outline a clear trend for the imposition of cultural tourism among the leading types of tourism. The sites from the Roman era, which are distinguished by their recognizability and traditionally arouse great interest, are widely used in the development of popular products of cultural tourism, imposed on the world tourist market. The presence of a significant number of archeological sites from the Roman era on the territory of Bulgaria, in the context of the tourism policy in the country and opportunities for public support, incl. financial, are prerequisites for the development of successful products based on archaeological heritage. The Roman archeological heritage as a significant part of the common cultural and historical heritage in the tourism region Rila-Pirin, located in Southwestern Bulgaria, is an essential resource for tourism. In this sense, in the present paper we explore the opportunities for the development of cultural tourism based on the Roman immovable heritage in the area. For this purpose, 17 sites are selected and analyzed. They have been explored through archeological excavations, with preserved and visible on the surface archaeological structures, accessible for visits by tourists, current tourist sites and those with potential for development. All were visited as part of own field research. For the purposes of the article, the immovable Roman archeological monuments are analyzed in three aspects – as a resource for tourism; current state of the archeological monuments as sites for tourism and territorial location and accessibility of the archeological monuments. The condition of the sites is considered in terms of preservation, cultural value, exposure, socialization, organization and functioning, location and distance from each other. The variety of types of sites and discovered archeological structures, their degree of preservation, the natural specifics of the territory in which they are located, and the discovered finds testify to the high expositional and cultural value of the individual immovable Roman archeological sites. Several main thematic hisorical lines have been identified in separate parts of the region, which can be traced and presented – fortress network, village life, Romans and mineral waters, early Christianity. According to the degree of assimilation and tourist suitability, 4 sites stand out as established tourist attractions. (Nikopolis ad Nestum, Archaeological Park Sandanski, Stenos Fortress, Tsari Mali grad), and the rest are considered mostly unknown and with tourist potential. There are also some main positive and negative trends in the use of this type of sites for tourism purposes, related to the projects, maintenance and preservation of the integrity of archaeological structures and adjacent infrastructure, low overall level of tourism
marketing in terms of archaeological values, the question of the authenticity and quality of the restorations of the sites. The potential possibilities for using the Roman heritage for the purposes of cultural tourism are also pointed out. They refer to the development of cultural tourism in two directions: cultural tourism based solely on immovable Roman archaeological values within the Rila-Pirin tourist region and cultural tourism in which the immovable Roman archaeological heritage is combined with other anthropogenic and natural landmarks. in the tourist area. Possibilities are offered for combining the Roman sites on the basis of their territorial location, where the other sites are situated around the main archeological monuments, active tourist attractions. There are also opportunities for diversification of the tourist offer by integrating the Roman sites with other traditional tourist attractions and services – diversification and enrichment of the stay in the already established resorts, as part of the programs for hiking, eco, mountain and cycling tourism, as well as part of cross-border products. In conclusion, the Roman heritage as a significant resource for tourism reveals new alternatives for tourism in the region, which will complement the traditional presentation of the region as a destination for mountain, religious and pilgrimage, balneology, spa and wine tourism.

Keywords: Immovable Roman archaeological heritage, tourism region Rila-Pirin,
cultural tourism