ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Georgi Zhelezov – The importance of military geography is developed in the book „Military geography and statistics. Macedonia and its neighboring districts. Balkan peninsula” by captain Anastas Benderev
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Georgi Zhelezov, Velimira Stoyanova – SPATIAL DIMENSIONS OF THE MISSION OF THE APOSTLE OF FREEDOM VASIL LEVSKI IN THE BULGARIAN LAND (BULGARIAN GEOGRAPHICAL AREA)
The goal of the investigation is to try to present a geographical analysis of the Mission of the Apostle of Freedom Vasil Levski in the Bulgarian land (Bulgarian geographical space) analyzing the main points forming the nuclei of revolutionary committees and the main directions of his five tours. Another aspect of the research is to show the geographical space that covers the activities of the Apostle within the then Ottoman Empire, neighboring vassal territories and what part of the Bulgarian land it covers.
Keywords: Vasil Levski, Apostle, freedom, mission
Nikolay Tsekov – THE INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE ON THE CREATION OF REGIONAL HUMAN CAPITAL IN BULGARIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY
The demographic and socio-economic development of Bulgaria during the first two decades of the 21st century is marked by increasing social and economic inequalities and deepening of negative trends in the conditions for reproduction of the population and labor resources both nationally and especially regionally. level. The increase, and in some regions the escalation in the rates of aging and depopulation along with emigration, are not the only reasons for the deterioration of the conditions for the reproduction of human capital. The aim of this study is to identify the regions with the most serious abandonment in the field of human development and reproduction of the population and labor resources in the period 2001-2020. Based on available statistical information on the demographic, geodemographic and socio-economic development of existing During all the years of the studied period 262 municipalities made an attempt for their arrangement (classification) according to the degree of favorable conditions for the reproduction and formation of labor resources and human capital at the municipal level. To perform the set task, the multidimensional statistical analysis was used – the so-called Helwig’s method for the standard of development. Based on the calculated Euclidean distances between the standard and the individual municipalities, five large groups of municipalities have been identified, differentiated according to their distance from the favorable standard of human development. With the help of the methods of correlation- regression analysis are revealed some of the main factors for the spatial differentiation of Bulgarian municipalities in the first two decades of the 21st century, which contribute to or deter the growth of regional differences in the reproduction of labor and human capital. of the Bulgarian municipalities.
Keywords: demographic change, human capital, Helwig method, development standard, multidimensional spatial differentiation.
Nadezhda Ilieva – DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS FOR SPATIAL SEGREGATION AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GETHOIZED URBAN STRUCTURE HARMAN MAHALA, PLOVDIV
Spatial segregation manifests itself in different ways during different historical periods depending on the different ideological, political, socio-economic, ethnocultural and other influences. Post-socialist societies face many challenges at the same time, leading to complex sectoral and spatial changes, including in cities. There are new models of socio- spatial polarization, increasingly based on income inequality and ethnicity. Social inequalities, as well as long-term ethnic interactions, sooner or later affect the structure of space. The various forms of spatial segregation in Bulgaria are related to the territorial concentration of the Roma ethnic group, and the increase in the level of their spatial segregation in recent decades is proven. The factors that influence the formation of different models of spatial segregation are divided into two groups: internal or voluntary (ethnocultural and demographic) and external (political and institutional, socio-economic and discriminatory) factors. This publication analyzes the demographic factors, as part of the internal ones, for the formation and development of the Roma ghettoized structure Harman Mahala, Plovdiv. Combined methods were used in order to obtain quantitative and qualitative data, through which the studied processes were studied in greater depth. Demographic factors are key in determining differences in levels of spatial segregation and largely determine the degree of influence of other groups of factors. In this regard, an in-depth analysis of the peculiarities and ways of forming the modern ethnic structure, the number of Roma population in different urban areas, the ethnic diversity of Harman neighborhood, the share of ethnic communities, trends in demographic and migratory behavior of Roma in the study area , their age, educational and religious structure, composition and character of the household. In order to formulate effective national and regional policies and strategies for Roma integration and to objectively assess their effectiveness, there is an urgent need to improve the collection of ethnicity data through regular monitoring. The developed methodology to some extent solves the problem of lack of data. The application of the compiled research algorithm collects a wide range of data related not only to the demographic characteristics of the Roma population. Despite the observed trends of decreasing natural growth, there is a rapid increase in population in the urban ghettoized structure Harman neighborhood. The decline in the birth rate is mainly the result of policies to keep children in school and increase their educational level, as well as increased emigration, which has a limiting effect on the number of births. Although emigration has been intense over the last decade, it is not necessarily accompanied by a change of residence, as in many cases migration processes are intermittent, sporadic. Returning from abroad with their savings, many Roma buy real estate in other parts of the city and surrounding villages and despite the change in status, income and marital status keep their property in the Roma neighborhood in their desire to keep family, clan, neighborhood relationships. The Muslim religion and the Turkish mother tongue play a very strong role in the formation of the ethno- territorial community and the alienation of the state. These ethnic features lead to the formation of the idea of alienation of Turkish Roma (such as over 90% of the population of Harman Mahala) not only from the majority, but also from other Roma groups. There is a process of searching for a new self-identification, of the formation of an ethnic community related to the Turkish identity. This desire is growing to such an extent that the Roma recognize Turkey as their homeland and as a country that would solve their accumulated problems, forming in their minds an idealized image that in no way corresponds to reality. All these processes give grounds to draw the conclusion about the strong influence of the internal factors for spatial segregation of the Roma in the formation of the urban ghettoized structures in the city of Plovdiv. The development of a successful regional policy will be effective, provided that the demographic situation, the number and location of individual ethnic and religious communities and their problems are known. The research done partly covers these needs, but there are also many problems that need to be addressed. In practice, the nature of demographic processes and whether the Roma will copy the reproductive and marital behavior of the majority depend on future integration problems. The integration processes will also determine the speed and intensity of the transition of the Roma to the fourth phase of the demographic transition. It is related to increasing the requirements for raising children, raising the educational level of the Roma, as their economic well-being is one of the most important factors influencing the change of their values. Trends in demographic development show that the increase in the Roma population will continue, which will maintain the high demand for housing. All these facts, in turn, will pose significant challenges to the physical planning of new homes.
Keywords: spatial segregation, urban ghettoized structure, Harman Mahala – the city of Plovdiv, demographic factors.
Petar Kirilov – INTEGRATION OF THE ROMA IN STOLIPINOVO DISTRICT, PLOVDIV, AFTER BULGARIA‘S ACCESSION TO THE EU
Roma integration is a long-term challenge for the government and society. It requires the coordinated implementation of consistent, targeted, active and effective policies, the mobilization of responsible institutions and the civil society in order to make progress in specific public spheres, to prevent discrimination and inequality, poverty and social exclusion of the Roma. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of policies aimed at Roma integration in Bulgaria after the country’s accession to the EU, based on the example of a ghettoized structure – Stolipinovo district of the city of Plovdiv, and for this purpose, the case method has been used, presented through a questionnaire-based survey. The object of the study is the Roma population in Stolipinovo district of Plovdiv. Based on the survey conducted among 104 respondents from Stolipinovo district, the following conclusions were made:
• Stolipinovo district is a separate, homogeneous district in the city of Plovdiv, exhibiting specific problems, typical for the Roma community – unemployment, low education level, low health status;
• Many of its inhabitants spend their entire lives there;
• The relative share of Roma with no health insurance remains high. No change has been established in that aspect, concerning the studied contingent;
• Spatial isolation and overcrowding make it very difficult to isolate contagious people and infectious diseases are often epidemic;
• Roma parents’ motivation for their children to receive education is not very high, although they all want their children to have a better education and a chance for a better future, which is normal for every parent;
• Many young Roma in the neighborhood are still without a proper education, leave school early, or don’t to go to school;
• The employment of the residents of Stolipinovo is diverse – some of them rely on aid and funds from relatives abroad, some are temporarily employed, others have small businesses, while most are begging;
• Segregation and poor housing conditions are the main factors that support the vicious circle of exclusion. Children continue to study (more than 95%of them) in segregated Roma schools in the neighborhood;
• The Roma are caught in a vicious circle of secondary segregation not only in residential areas, but also in education and on the labor market. Prejudice in various areas leads to social exclusion and discrimination in education, health care and the labor market, and deepens the precarious living conditions by exacerbating prejudice.
Keywords: Roma ethnic group, Roma integration policies, demographic characteristics, education, labor, housing, urban ghettoized structure of Stolipinovo, Plovdiv
Dilyana Stefanova – ATTITUDES OF STAKEHOLDERS TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF LAND USE REGULATIONS AND MANAGEMENT OF KARST AREAS
Socio-economic systems created by man in karst areas or near such areas are very often in violation of their natural sustainable development. Prolonged anthropogenic impact causes significant changes in karstogenesis, which at the present stage of development of human society are expanding and deepening. Solving the problems caused by the human- karst interaction requires active collaboration and joint efforts of all those interested in the sustainable development of karst areas. This means that stakeholders need to be precisely identified. It is also important to study stakeholders’ knowledge and awareness in the field of karst, their attitude towards the risks and the protection of karst areas, as well as their attitudes towards the need to develop and implement regulations, norms and rules regarding the position those stakeholders occupy and the role they play. Tracking and analyzing the views and understandings of stakeholders with different competencies, will help to properly assess the need and readiness to develop and implement appropriate regulatory techniques and control models in the management of karst areas. This determines the purpose of this study – to establish the extent of understanding and how stakeholders perceive karst, and what their attitudes and willingness to create and implement regulations for land use and management of karst areas are. The study of the attitudes of stakeholders for the creation and implementation of regulations in land use and management of karst areas was conducted through a survey. The results of the „Survey of knowledge, practices, and attitudes of various stakeholders towards land use and management of karst areas” were used as a starting point. Three types of stakeholders were surveyed as group entities: authorities (divided into seven subgroups), the tourism business (representatives of the show caves in Bulgaria) and NGOs (representatives of cave clubs and associations in Bulgaria). The information gathering model is a standardized questionnaire. The questions included in the survey are organized in four thematic areas – knowledge and awareness, practices, attitudes and perceptions. Within these thematic areas, the information collected through the survey was also analyzed. Some important conclusions about the expressed attitudes for management and administration of karst areas were summarized in the following areas: the need for regulations, readiness to create and implement regulations, and the need for lifelong karst training. In conclusion, the results of the survey presented in this paper, provide useful data on attitudes and readiness to create, introduce and implement regulations in karst areas.
Keywords: land use in karst areas, stakeholders, attitudes, karst regulations.
Svetlana Domuschy, Valentina Trigub – PRESENT ECOLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CONDITION OF SOILS IN PARKS OF THE ODESSA CITY (UKRAINE)
The distribution of heavy metals in the soils of the parks of the city of Odessa was analyzed. The chemical properties (pH, content of total humus, content of mobile forms of heavy metals) in soil samples were determined. Technogenic impact on the soil cover of the studied city parks has led to a change in the chemical properties of soils: alkalization, an increase in humus content; a significant increase in mobile forms of heavy metals. It was revealed that only the soils of the Botanical Garden are not contaminated with heavy metals, which is due to their considerable remoteness from large city streets and industrial enterprises. The content of the studied heavy metals in the territory of the other parks varies widely, significantly exceeding the background values, and in terms of the content of zinc and MPC. The results of calculations of the total indicator of pollution of the top layer of the soil cover of city parks, taking into account the toxicity coefficient of HM, showed that the studied soils of the city mainly belong to the category of “moderately dangerous” – “very dangerous”. At the same time, ≈ 30% of the study areas are characterized by a very dangerous level of pollution. The study of the degree of phytotoxicity of the studied soils showed the absence of suppression of plant growth only in the control plot. All other soils of the parks have a low degree of phytotoxicity (0-20%). The studies carried out made it possible to study the current ecological and geochemical state of soils in parks, which will contribute to the development of measures to preserve the green zone of the city.
Keywords: urban soils, parks, humus, pH, heavy metals, total pollution index, phytotoxicity, Odessa.
Sofiia Mizina – CURRENT STATE OF THE NATURE AND LANDSCAPES OF THE TRUBIZH RIVER BASIN (UKRAINE)
The article analyzes the specifics of the nature of the Trubizh river basin, characterizes the geological structure of the study area and notes that its forming elements are sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which lie on the Precambrian crystalline basement, and geomorphological features of the study area form ancient floodplains of the Dnieper river (most of the territory is located within the second floodplain terrace) and the floodplain and floodplain terrace of Trubizh. The boundaries of the floodplain and the floodplain terrace of the Trubizh River have been clarified and reflected on the map. Analysis of the geological and geomorphological structure and originality of climatic conditions of the territory made it pos- sible to establish patterns of formation and distribution of genetic types of soils, most of which were formed on forests and forest-like loams. It has been found that the most common in the study area are light grey and grey podzolic soils. The regularities of vegetation distribution have been characterized and it has been noted that today most of the territory is plowed and is under agrocenoses, which, accordingly, has a negative impact on faunal diversity. It has been established that the reason for this is the irrational use of nature due to drainage reclamation works.
Keywords: geological structure, relief, geomorphological structure, flora, fauna, aquifer, water management landscape-technical system, rational nature management.
Georgi Zhelezov – THE PROBLEM OF THE IMPORTANCE OF MILITARY GEOGRAPHY IS DEVELOPED IN THE BOOK „MILITARY GEOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. MACEDONIA AND ITS NEIGHBORING DISTRICTS. BALKAN PENINSULA” BY CAPTAIN ANASTAS BENDEREV
The book consists of four main parts and three applications. With this publication the author sets the modest goal to present to the Bulgarian geographical and scientific community a little known work in the field of geographical knowledge. Captain Anastas Bnederev‘s book „Military Geography and Statistics. Macedonia and the Neighboring Areas of the Balkan Peninsula (1890) “develops before us the possibilities of a neglected section of geographical knowledge – Military Geography. The detailed reading, analysis and study of the work of Anastas Benderev can provide key information about the Bulgarian lands in the natural geographical, demographic and economic context.
Keywords: Captain Atasnas Benderev, military geography, statistics.
Dimitar Parlichev – ON THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF THE GEOMORPHOLOGY
The author attempts to reconcile the main law of geomorphology formulated by D. А. Timofeev (1972), namely, „the relief of the Earth is created and develops as a result of the discontinuous-continuous interaction of the interrelated and mutually reinforced endogenous and exogenous forces of relief formation“, with his concept of global (morphospheric) geomorphology, proposing a new formulation of the law: The morphosphere is created, moved and modified by the forces of radiation and endogenous processes and the forces of gravity and exogenous processes, whose closest interaction and interdependence maintain the crustal isostasy through constant changes of the vectors of denudation and accumulation in the continental and oceanic type of morphosphere, with maxima at the surface..
Keywords: morphosphere, endogenous forces and processes, exogenous forces and processes, denudation, acumulation, isostasy.
Margarita Ilieva – THE VISEGRAD ATLAS
The Visegrad Atlas, published in 2021, is the first comprehensive scientific product of its kind regarding the countries of the so-called Visegrad Group, and representing the diverse base and development challenges which this geographical region faces. The publication is the result of a project implemented by the Polish Geographical Society, funded by the Wacław Felczak Institute of Polish-Hungarian Cooperation. The main part of the atlas represents 50 synthetic sections, which include maps and graphics, tables and analytical characteristics, with practical guidelines for using the existing potential of these countries. The atlas also includes analyses and comparisons, which are very useful for the readers, such as analyses regarding an array of problems of modern development, hitherto not reflected in atlases and monographs, e.g. the Covid-19 pandemic, the Covid-19 pandemic and international transport accessibility, the diversification of gas and oil supplies, etc. Some of those analyses are described by the editors of the publication as “pioneering” – for example, problems concerning cyberspace and the development of the information society.