New Volume

ISSN 0204-7209
ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Volume 2
Sofia 2019



ANNOTATIONS


Zakir Eminov, Zaur Imrani, Hijran Tahirova, Matanat Musayeva – SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS OF THE REGIONS IN THE AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

The main purpose of the research is to identify the existing disproportion between Absheron where country’s capital is located and other regions of Azerbaijan, as well as to define the reasons of uneven development and ways of solution of the relevant problems. Several processes indicating the problems of sustainable development were chosen as the research object. The study has certain practical significance because it allows define ways of sustainable development of the regions of Azerbaijan and also ways of reduction of economic inequality between Absheron and other regions, as well as determines the most optimal regional policy.

Keywords: region, regional policy, sustainable development, economic, regional, state program


Emil Oynakov, Dimcho Solakov, Irena Aleksandrova – FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RANDOM FLUCTUATIONS IN THE SEISMIC RECORDS (MATHEMATICAL APPARATUS AND STEP-BY-STEP SCHEME)

One of the methods for earthquake prediction is related to the search and detection of earthquake predictors in the seismic records. The currently used seismic sensors have weak sensitivity to earthquake predictors, “hidden” in the microseismic noise. The microseismic noise does not contain monochromatic components, and therefore the traditionally used in geophysical practice-the spectral analysis for its research is not effective. For this reason, various mathematical methods for detecting earthquake precursor signals in microseismic noise are being developed. This article introduces an approach using the multifractal analysis apparatus to describe in detail the noise structure in the seismic monitoring system data.

Keywords: earthquake prediction, predictors, fractal analysis


Maria Grozeva – ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LAND AND RIVER STATE BORDERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA WITH THE NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES

The national geographic space of each country is directly related to the neighboring countries. Hence the importance of the geographic proximity, which has very significant geoeconomic and geopolitical dimensions. For the assessment of the Bulgarian state borders with the neighboring countries the author has applied an assessment method designed by Simonov (1970), a modified version of which was later applied by Kolev (2008). The emergence of the new state of Kosovo, however, changed the border between Serbia and Macedonia (currently North Macedonia). In this regard the paper presents a new assessment of the significance of the state borders of the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as an assessment of their significance regarding each of the neighboring countries.

Keywords: national geographic space, state borders, geographical neighborhood


Rositza Mikova – POPULULATION DYNAMICS OF THE MOUNTAINOUS SETTLEMENTS IN BULGARIA

The paper deals with the population dynamics and the problem of depopulation of the mountainous settlements in Bulgaria in the period between 1985 and 2011. Based on the analysis of the current state, trends and spatial characteristics, a permanent trend of population decrease has been established, albeit the diminishing values of the population decrease rate (from –3.4% in the period 1985–1992 to –1.5% in the period 2001–2011). In
order to trace which areas are most affected by depopulation processes, typologization of the mountain settlements has been made, depending on the “degree of depopulation”, using the Mladenov scale (2014), according to which depopulation is considered weak (values of relative decrease below 10%), moderate (between 10 and 20%), significant (20-60%), critical (60-80%) and irreversible (over 80%). The process of depopulation affects the majority of themountainous settlements located in the western border regions of the country, the Strandzha-Sakar region, the Central Stara Planina Mnt, including the regions with a high share of Turkish (Eastern Rhodopes) and Bulgarian Muslim population (Western Rhodopes). The classification
of the mountainous settlements according to their population number, has established that the number of settlements with a population below 100 residents has increased (43%) at the expense of those with a population number over 500 residents (19.6%). Emigration and negative natural growth are the leading factors for the decrease of the population of the mountainous settlements in the period between 1985 and 2011. The current trends in
the population dynamics of the mountainous settlements in Bulgaria predetermine further depopulation.

Keywords: mountainous settlement; classification of settlements; ageing of the population; depopulation population; depopulation


Emilia Patarchanova, Gergana Nikolova – MIGRATION ACTIVITY OF THE POPULATION IN KYUSTENDIL DISTRICT

In the recent years in our country migration management is becoming a decisive factor in the demographic development of the country. Internal migration needs to be studied, because the problems it caused by demographic, social and economic factors affecting an increasing part of the population and territory of our country, as determined the general demographic situation. The migrations are an essential component in demographic
develop-ment in the studied area and are of great importance to the territorial distribution of the population. Migration activity of the population with its natural reproduction identifies current trends in demographic development of the territory. Internal migration processes have considerable influence on social and economic development of the territory. The current migration activity of the population will determine the future demographic and social situation. Population migration is a natural process of the movement and freedom of choice of residence, work, learning and life. Migrations have a significant direct impact on natural reproduction, age structure, employment, marriage and the diligence.

Keywords: migration, daily labor migration, mechanical growth, demographic development, sustainability


Georgi Zhelezov, Stoyan Nedkov – DEVELOPMENT OF THE LANDSCAPE RESEARCHES IN BULGARIA

The article explores the development of landscape ideas, landscape researches and landscape science in Bulgaria. There are three periods marking the main achievements in the field of landscape science in Bulgaria. An overview of the publications in the field of landscape researches in Bulgaria, ecosystem services and the main landscape maps and map products are created.

Keywords: landscape, science, research