Jubilees and Anniversaries
Comments and Reviews
Irina Rodionova, Sergey Elagin – Dynamics of space organization of world industry
The modern world industry differs by a difficult and rather diversified structure. The ongoing changes in the structure of the industrial sector of developed economies by their nature differ from those which occur in developing countries. Also these changes differ by speed and nature due to regions’ size.
Key words: manufacturing industry, high technology manufacturing industries, high- tech (HT) production, space organization of world industry, world industry, structural shifts.
Stefan Karastoyanov – Essence and siginificance of the political regionalistics
The article is devoted to the political regionalistics – which is a new interdisciplinary scientific field of study. The Regionalistics (Regionology) synthesize spatial approaches, which are commonly used in geography, politology, history, economics, culture, ecology and other sciences. The political regionalistics study the interrelations of the socio-political organization and regional development.
Valentin Mihaylov – About globalization of the world and ideas for „end of geography”. Theses and contra theses
The main goal of this paper is a critical analysis of the hypothesis of “the end of geography” which arised in the framework of social sciences as an intellectual reaction to the processes of strengthening international integration and globalization. The main author’s theses are supported by different examples of contemporary geoeconomic, geopolitical and geocultural dynamics of world system. In spite of assessments and conclusions on reduction of the importance of territory, we could conclude that its function will be maintained despite globalization, de-teritorialization of the part of human relations and in spite of emergence of a virtual sphere. It is one of the most important conclusions in the paper. Furthermore, the author suggests that distances and the uniqueness of the places will retain its influence under many modern processes. The geography space remains an indispensable condition of life, building material and technical infrastructure as well as agricultural production to ensure communal needs for the constantly increasing number of world population.
Nadezhda Ilieva – Changes in the localization of roma ethnic group in Bulgaria (1992-2001)
The theme of the Roma ethnic group is quite often discussed in public space. The changes in its size, demographic behaviour and structure are of great interest. It is the Roma ethnic group in Bulgaria which is the focus of research in this paper. The investigation covers the period between the last two censuses. An attempt is made to delineate the areas, remarkable for their high concentration of Roma population – three times higher than the national average (over 10 %).The 1992 and 2001 census- takings show that the Roma ethnic group is the only one in the country which increased in number – a 2 % average growth rate per year. The Roma population is dispersed amidst the other ethnic groups and does not form compact areas. Six regions can be distinguished, where the Roma ethnic group constitutes a large share – Sub-Balkan, South Dobrudja, Eastern Stara Planina, Burgas, Marishki and Northwestern.
Nikola Nikolov – Forms and subforms of ecotourism. Experience for systematization
The current paper, although far from being absolutely thorough, is an attempt for definition and systematization of various forms and subforms of ecotourism, as well as focusing on the relation between ecological (sparing, protective) and the other kind – the so-called non-ecological (destructive, harming) tourism. In the frames of the cluster defined as ecological tourism, an attempt of differentiation of ecotourism forms and subforms, based on a leading typological criteria has been made. In order to achieve this, a differentiation based on the means and types of moving within the tourist area had to be made. To achieve even fuller systematization, a higher typological level was separated, based on the characteristics of the terrain and the environment in which the movement is done. Thus, the separately analyzed and briefly characterized ecotourism forms and subforms according to the type of movement within the tourist area have been grouped in the following five basic groups – movement on: ground- soil rocky terrain; beneath the land surface; water surface and in water bodies; snow, ice and mixed surface; in the air.
Vanya Vasileva – Analysis of tourist exchange between Bulgaria and Israel
Both Bulgaria and Israel are tourist countries but their tourist exchange is small scale and the research is not developed well enough. Recent years have seen an increase in the number of visits by Israeli citizens in our country. In 2010 they reached their maximum during the period. The study of Israeli tourist market is important for attracting Israeli tourists in our country. This paper deals with the dynamics of tourist groups to and from each country. Used indicators are total number of visitors, mode of transport used, distribution of tourists by month, category of hotels for accommodation. Based on the examined parameters, appropriate conclusions and recommendations were made.
Key words: Israel, Bulgaria, tourist volumes
Richard Unger – Environmental and Economic Histories: Examples from Pre-modern Europe
Environmental history has only recently emerged as a field of study for scholars who systematically examine the human past. It has grown out of the increasing concern for perceivable degradation in the physical surroundings of a rapidly growing population and serious concern about the future emanating from the work of scientists who study climate. Economic History is, compared to environmental history, an old and well-established sub-discipline. While some writers concerned with the past long gave consideration to the economy it was the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of what one contemporary called “the dismal science”2 in the first half of the nineteenth century which generated works that concentrated on how people over time have dealt with the problem of scarcity. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels offered not only a theory of economic history but for all human history and relations of people to the means of production (M a r x, E n g e l s, 1888). Their work, starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, and the interpretation of it and the reaction to it led by the early twentieth to a vibrant field of study. Institutionalized in scholarly pe- riodicals, monograph series and then in academic departments, the pattern of its rise to prominence in the years after the Second World War is one which environmental history is following in the early twenty-first century. The growth in environmental history is coincident with the decline in interest in economic history. There are many reasons for the disinterest in past economic performance and one is the close relation- ship between the two fields of environmental and economic history.
Nelson Rangel-Buitrago, Giorgio Anfuso, Margarita Stancheva – Effects of coastal armouring in the Bolivar Department (Caribbean Sea Of Colombia)
Progressive erosion had started to affect the 1760 km long Caribbean coastline of Colombia over the past century. In response to this ongoing eroding process since 1970s large number of various hard defence structures have been emplaced in the coastal zone. In this regard, the present paper is devoted to inventory the main types and distribution of installed coastal structures around the municipalities of Cartagena and Santa Catalina in the Bolivar Department, Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total number of 289 different structures with a length of 44 km were observed at the 366 km long studied coastal area, including jetties, groins, breakwaters, dune fences, promenades, seawalls/historical fortifications, ports, harbours etc.
Georgi Zhelezov, Mariyan Vurbanov, Mateja Germ, Alenka Gaberščik – Hydrological characteristic and related ecosystem services of the lakes Srebarna and Cerknica
Wetlands are among the most endangered systems in spite of the fact that they have a great influence on human wellbeing, providing the majority of important eco- system services. Karst wetlands are marked by changes in water level during the year. Water level fluctuations create a variety of habitats with diverse communities (G a b e r š č i k, U r b a n c – B e r č i č, 2002). A range of changes in water regime, soil properties and some other factors delineates habitats. Water level during the vegetation period as well as the intensity, timing and the extent of floods influence primary production and other processes, e.g. mineralization, decomposition, colo- nisation with plants, as revealed by different studies (M a r t i n č i č, L e s k o v a r, 2002; D i n k a et al., 2008). The intermittent Cerknica Lake appears at the bottom of the karstic depression Cerkniško Polje. The amount of water in the lake depends on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration on the polje and its surroundings (K r a n j c, 2002). During the rainy period, water is collected from the upstream-lying karst poljes, from the surrounding karstic plateaus and directly from the rainfall. The studies of processes in intermittent wetlands revealed that the water level dur- ing the vegetation period as well as the intensity, timing and the extent of floods and droughts, affect primary production, life cycles of animals, i.e. spawning of fish and nesting of birds, as well as mineralization and decomposition (B o u l t o n, B r o c k, 1999; G a b e r š č i k, et al., 2003, D i n k a et al., 2008). Clear zoning of different vegetation types could be observed on the area (M a r t i n č i č, L e s k o v a r, 2002) as was also the case in other wetlands (C r o n k, F e n n e s s y, 2001). The lake provides habitat or temporary shelter for numerous species many of which are on the Red List. Besides, the lake presents an important reservoir for water accumulation.
Peter Nojarov – Statistical modeling and forecasts of air temperatures and precipitation in Bulgarian mountains
Air temperatures and precipitation are two of the main climate elements in a certain territory. Their importance for natural complex and human activities is immense. Air temperature has a direct impact on human health. Very cold or very hot environments can have a strong limiting influence on people, vegetation and animals. Thermal levels directly affect almost all agricultural activities. They also have impact on such areas as transport and tourism. Precipitation is a main factor for water quantity in a certain territory. Its direct influence is determined by their intensity, which at high levels can lead to flooding and consequently many casualties and material damage. Water plays a major role in all spheres of human activity. Precipitation shortage is a strong limiting factor. Solid precipitation forms snow, which has some positive effects (for winter sports) and some negative effects (for transport). In mountainous areas, both climate elements are of particular importance. Vertical temperature gradi- ent leads to a decrease in air temperatures and correspondingly to more dangerous environments associated with cold conditions. Intensity and frequency of precipita- tion are greater, which is also a negative factor. On the other hand, this complex of lower temperatures and more precipitation leads to accumulation of large amounts of snow and thus makes mountains natural water reservoir having a major impact on all surrounding areas. Also snow cover is essential for the development of winter tourism and sports. All this requires study and modeling of connections and correlations between investigated climate elements. It will allow some forecasts of the future development.
Dimitar Vladev – Morphostructure features of Roiaksko plateau
In the study of the morphological structure of Royaksko plateau were analyzed various features of topography: morphological, morphological structure, tectonic, geodynamic. Proposed is a significant amount of scientific information, mainly endogenous earthly powers, such information is mapped to specific geomorphologic field surveys conducted by the author all along the plateau. Special attention is paid to the configuration of the river-valley network in the plateau and surrounding downs and also the position and features of the floodplain, series of river terraces, and leveled surfaces. Collected and systematized scientific information possible to be certain genesis and milestones in the development of morphological structure Royaksko plateau.
Gergana Metodieva – Periodicals of the Institute of Geography – BAS (1951-2010)
Since its foundation the Institute of Geography, BAS, has published two series – “Bulletin of the Institute of Geography” and “Problems of Geography of the Republic of Bulgaria”, as well as one scientific journal – “Problems of Geography”.
The analysis of the two series shows that they have come out over periods of different duration, and have had different number of volumes, size, total print and printer’s sheets. They contain various scientific articles and studies which focus mostly on physical geography. About one third of the published materials in the two series deal with geomorphological issues; the latter are most numerous in the series “Bulletin of the Institute of Geography”. In the “Problems of Geography of the Republic of Bulgaria” the different scientific fields of the publications are equally presented. In the “Bulletin of the Institute of Geography” the authors are predominantly from the Institute of Geography, while the “Problems of Geography of the Republic of Bulgaria” has mainly contributors from other institutions. In 1974 the series “Bulletin of the Institute of Geography” was transformed into the scientific journal “Problems of Geography”. This paper analyses the themes of the publications and the research trends in them, the ratio of the authors and the language into which the materials are published. Attention is also paid to the attempts of the editorial staff to improve the quality standard of the journal in order to meet successfully the growing needs of the readers.
Ivanka Boteva – Sustainable development in mountain region – a challenge to scientists
Valentin Mihaylov – The original and profound analysis of political geography and geopolicy of Ukraine