ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Georgi Zhelezov – THE MANUSCRIPT OF PROF. DR. IVAN BATAKLIEV „GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF LANDSCAPES OF BULGARIA AND OVERVIEW OF POPULATION DEVELOPMENT“
The goal of the research is to present to the Bulgarian geographical and scientific community an unpublished manuscript of Prof. Dr. Ivan Batakliev “Geographical overview of landscapes of Bulgaria and overview of the development of the population”. The scientific work of prof. Btakliev realized detail characteristic and analysis of the landscapes and development of the population of Bulgaria.
Keywords: prof. Ivan Batakliev, landscape, population
Tsvetan Kotsev, Velimira Stoyanova – PREDICTIVE MODELLING OF ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOILS DISTRIBUTION IN THE OGOSTA RIVER VALLEY BETWEEN THE VILLAGES OF BELI BROD AND MANASTIRISHTE, NW BULGARIA
In this paper, we conducted predictive modelling of the spatial distribution of arsenic-contaminated soils in a river valley polluted with mine tailings from the processing of Fe-, Pb-Ag and Au-ores in the mountainous part of the river catchment. The maximum entropy method was applied using the software Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (MaxEnt), Version 3.4.4 (Phillips et al., 2006). The results of MaxEnt were visualized with ESRI ArcGIS 10.6.1 software product. The choice of predictors of contaminated soil distribution is consistent with the main factor for contaminant dispersal within the valley floor – flooding from the Ogosta River. The following five parameters explained the environmental settings related to the accumulation of contaminated floodplain sediment: vertical distance to the river channel (m_vdcn); distance from the Ogosta River (m_distance); slope (m_slope); land cover (m_clc_18); morphographic units of topography (m_gmu). Arsenic content was measured by the XRF method in 105 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) which were collected in 2020. The samples were divided into three groups according to the maximum permissible concentration (25 mg/kg) and the intervention value of As (90 mg/kg) in the soils of arable and grass lands according to Bulgarian Regulation No. 3/2008 on the permissible content of harmful substances in soils. The intervals of As for each group were as follows [mg/kg]: Group 1 (0-25], 59 samples; Group 2 (25-90], 15 samples; Group 3 (>90), 31 samples. For each group, separate modelling was performed with MaxEnt using the set of predictors specified above. We used the logistic type of output of MaxEnt, which is interpreted as probability of presence of the research object with a value from 0 to 1. Control samples were selected by the bootstrap method due to the small number of samples in the individual groups. The final results represent the average values of 10 replicates of the model. We evaluated the individual models by AUC for the test samples. The AUCtest value for the Group 1 model is 0.793, for Group 2 is 0.741, and for Group 3 is 0.832. The models of the first two groups can be rated as fair, and the one for group 3 is defined as good according to the classification suggested by Araújo et al. (2005). The most significant predictors for the models are the distance from the river, the vertical distance to the river channel, and the slope of the terrain. Arsenic concentrations tend to decrease with the distance from the main river and by increasing the elevation above the river channel due to lower inundation frequency and deposition rate of polluted river sediments. At a probability of presence above 50%, soils with As <25 mg/kg cover more than 19% of the valley floor, while soils with As>90 mg/kg occupy nearly 8% of its area. Although the studied section of the Ogosta River valley is more than 80 km from the former Chiprovtsi mines, they strongly affected the environmental quality in the modelled area. The results indicate pollution of soils in the low floodplain of the entire valley from the mines to the river mouth into the Danube River.
Keywords: maximum entropy, MaxEnt, mine tailings, soil pollution, river floodplain
Marinela Agalareva – CLIMATE FLUCTUATIONS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO FLOOD DANGER AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE CENTRAL SEGMENT OF PRE-BALKANS
Since the end of the last century threats to the sustainable development of the naturalsocialsystem have been determined by the regime, rhythm, increased frequency and intensityof a number of extreme natural phenomena and processes related to climatic fluctuationsand anthropogenic impacts. In the present article, special attention is paid to differentmethodological approaches for identification of areas threatened by dangerous floods. Theapplication of Directive 60/2008 of the EC dominates the studies so far. Primary zoning ofpotential river floodplains prone to flooding from the three basin directorates in our countrywas carried out on this basis. The methodology applied for the plain territories is notparticularly effective for low-mountainous and mountainous regions and their municipalities.The central segment of the Pre-Balkans, subjected to permanent pressure from extrememanifestations of dangerous climatic processes and phenomena in the range of the Staraplanina orogenic chain, was chosen as a representative region of such research. The recentarticle implements an up-to-date scientifically-based methodological approach that integratespaleogeographic information and statistical data for a realistic and objective assessment of thedangers, vulnerability and multirisks from extreme floods and genetically related mud-stoneflows. The place and role of the principles of actualism, which dominate the methodologicalapproaches and methods in the study of natural geosystems, are highlighted. For the longtermstabilization of mountain municipalities, a more comprehensive, scientifically basedand integrated paleogeographic methodological approach is proposed for assessing the flooddangers and vulnerability and the resulting multi-risk as for making effective managementdecisions at municipal level.
Keywords: morphodynamic processes, erosion hazard and vulnerability to erosion, accumulation, floods, multi-risk
Yulian Tyutyunnik – RUINS AND LANDSCAPE
Machines, structures, transport communications are technogenic componentsof the landscape, form the technogenic cover. The technogenic cover that has ceased tofunction is destroyed and turns into ruins. With the concentration of ruins in a limited area(former settlements, industrial sites, roads, etc.), post-technogenic, ruin landscapes are formed.The reasons for their formation are varied – natural disasters and environmental disasters,economic depressions and demographic crises, wars and epidemics, etc. The attitude towardsruins and ruin landscapes in culture is ambivalent – both negative and positive (German:Ruinenlust). The basic attitudes and principles of man’s attitude to ruins and ruin landscapeswere established in the Renaissance. In the period from Baroque to Art Nouveau, they weresupplemented and transformed. In our time, in the context of trans- and post-humanism, theruins and the ruin landscape have acquired new qualities. In particular, the ruin landscapecan be considered as a specific environment of life, formed by the negative processes of theevolution of the geographical shell.
Keywords: technogenic cover, post-technogenic landscape, ruin, ruin landscape, Ruinenlust, posthumanism
Yuriy Shuisky, Galina Vykhovanetz, Aleksey Davydov – PROBLEMS WITH THE FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING OF ARTIFICIAL SAND BEACHES ON THE BLACK AND AZOV SEA COASTS
The coastal zone of the seas and oceans in origin, formation, structure,and economic purpose fundamentally differs from natural and natural-anthropogenic landsystems. At the same time, it is the most dynamic natural system in the geographic envelope,so the results of any anthropogenic activity, manifested within its limits, have a very fastresponse. That is why all types of hydraulic engineering work, especially coastal protection,should be carried out only after scientific justification. It is important to note that in theUkrainian coastal literature up to now there is no whole, unified, complex justification forcoast protection, presented according to the genetic principle. That is why we consider thepresented publication as the first step towards such a justification. The work aims to analyzethe protection of abrasion coasts by methods of creating and operating artificial sandy beachesin the coastal zone of non-tidal seas and to develop appropriate recommendations. To achievethe aim, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: a) to develop a natural justification for theuse of artificial sandy beaches in the coastal zone of non-tidal seas; b) to analyze the necessaryphysical and geographical conditions for the creation of artificial sandy beaches (slope, thepresence of sediment, etc.); c) to study the possibility of using land and underwater sedimentsources for artificial dumping; d) to analyze the use of combining artificial beaches with otherhydraulic structures. All the tasks set in the complex are of significant practical importance,aimed at the conservation of coastal areas and the subsequent comprehensive geographicjustification. This publication is based on the materials of many years of research on artificialsandy beaches in the coastal zone of non-tidal seas. According to the presented materials, therule of creating sustainable artificial sandy beaches was substantiated and confirmed to optimizethe coastal protection of abrasion shores. This rule is based on the idea of redistributing theimpact of the wave energy from abrasion to accumulative mode. Therefore, in the conditionsof the sandy shores of the Black Sea, it is necessary to use a complex of beach dumping, withinthe limits of longitudinal and transverse hydraulic structures, individually for each sectionof the coastal zone, according to the law of geographical locality. The paper substantiatesthe fundamental difference between an artificial beach and artificial sandy terraces. Coastsare most effectively protected from abrasion by beaches, and not by stable terraces. Unlikenatural landscapes, in the complex systems of the coastal zone of the seas, the improvement oftheir condition is carried out in a fundamentally different way. One of the important methodsof such improvement is the creation and operation of artificial sand and pebble beaches. In theregion of the Black and Azov Seas, the creation and functioning of artificial sandy beachestake place under conditions of sediment deficit and the manifestation, simultaneously withwave action, of meteorological level fluctuations, which contributes to a strong loss of beachmaterial. Considering that there is a shortage of sand material of the required quality in theadjacent coastal areas and on the underwater slope, the issue of sand loss is of key importance.
Keywords: abrasion shore, non-tidal seas, sand beach, artificial beach, coastal protection.
Nadezhda Ilieva – INTERNAL FACTORS FOR THE FORMATION OF SPATIAL ROMA SEGREGATION (CASE STUDY OF HARMAN MAHALA NEIGHBOURHOOD, CITY OF PLOVDIV)
Internal spatial segregation factors are mainly related to voluntary spatialsegregation, also called auto-segregation, as they determine voluntary decisions toconcentrate in one neighborhood a group of people with common features in ethnic and/orsocial affiliation and shared interests, worldview, beliefs, norms, values, similar expectationsand lifestyles. In the present study, the essence of the internal factors that influence theprocesses of spatial segregation has been clarified. An analysis was made, on the exampleof Harman neighborhood, Plovdiv, of the influence of psychological, ethno-cultural factors,formed stereotypes, prejudices, social and spatial distances on the decision of the Roma ethnicgroup to separate itself in a given urban area. The period of transition is accompanied bythe strengthening of negative negative prejudices and stereotypes, and the social and spatialdistances on the part of the majority, the Bulgarians, are increasing. And vice versa, thisdistancing is also very clearly observed on the part of the Roma from the majority and isexpressed in their preferences to live apart from it and to preserve their ethno-territorialcommunity, which is manifested not only in terms of the residential environment, but also inother social spaces. After the withdrawal of the welfare state, the ghettoization of the Roma isincreasingly intensified, as they themselves seek solutions to their daily household problemsand thus become less and less dependent on the state and do not rely on it. Through thequantitative research, it is confirmed that if before 1989 the Roma worked, studied and sharedthe same social spaces together with the Bulgarians, currently these ties are completely broken.The Roma in Harman Mahala are looking for and finding a way out by themselves in securingthe income in the household, which, contrary to the generally accepted stereotypes about theRoma, is not provided by the state. In recent years, in connection with increased emigration,a larger proportion of households rely on financial support from relatives working abroad orincome from informal trade. After returning from abroad, the Roma feel increasingly distantand independent from the state, the process of encapsulation intensifies and the constructionof invisible walls between the Roma and the surrounding population becomes higher andhigher. An independent structure is created in which the role of internal social networks,loyalty to the place, internal rules, laws, norms is strengthened more and more, and all this isthe result of their long coexistence. The strong influence of internal factors is also confirmedby the results of the high degree of satisfaction with the neighborhood, the neighbors theylive with, whether they would move and whether they would live elsewhere. Another proof ofthis is that regardless of an increase in the social status of the residents of the neighborhood,which is accompanied by an improvement in their financial situation, they do not break theconnection with the ghettoized structure. Ethnic relations and social support are strengthenedby functioning strong social networks, long-term coexistence, a highly developed senseof belonging to the place, which have a significant impact on the territorial separation andconcentration of the Roma population and on their desire to preserve their identity, traditionsand culture. The high subjective assessment given by the residents of the neighborhood, whichis closely related to the internal factors of spatial segregation, is also a result of the sense ofsecurity felt by the residents of the Roma quarter – something that ethnic groups constantlyseek. A very strong role in the formation of the ethno-territorial community and the distancingof the state was played by the Muslim religion professed by its members and the Turkishmother tongue. These ethnic characteristics lead to the formation of the thought of alienationof the Turkish Roma (who are more than 90% of the population of Harman Mahala) not onlyfrom the majority, but also from the other Roma groups. There is a process of searching for anew self-identification, of distinguishing an ethnic community related to the Turkish identity.All these processes give reason to draw a conclusion about the strong influence of the internalfactors for spatial segregation of the Roma in the formation of the urban ghettoized structureinthe city of Plovdiv.
Keywords: spatial segregation, internal factors for spatial segregation, social and spatial distances, Roma ethnic group, Harman Mahala neighbourhood, city of Plovdiv
Kristina Petrova-Hristova – EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE IN THE FIELD OF ROMA INTEGRATION AND SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICELANDIC MODEL IN BULGARIA
The Roma ethnic group is spread in many countries, where it is a minority.Their ethnic characteristics are complex, because of the specific ethnic stratification they have.The Roma ethnic group is compound of numerous groups, subgroups and metagroups, whichgreatly complicates activities related to their integration into society. They are distinguishedby low educational level, low labor activity and high unemployment rate. All these problemsrequire the preparation of appropriate policies and models to reduce negative trends. Thereare a number of positive examples from European countries and also in Bulgaria. We canfind such examples in Hungary, which is developing a strong policy for the integration ofthe Roma – in Spain; Slovenia, Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden, etc. There are also suchpositive examples in Bulgaria, one of the most successful of which is in the „St. St. Cyril andMethodius“ school, in the city of Straldzha, where under the patronage of the Ministry ofLabor and Social Policy, during the academic year 2017/2018, the implementation of the socalledIcelandic model. It is adapted to deal with children leaving school early and increasingtheir interest in the learning process.
Keywords: integration, Roma ethnicity, minorities, Icelandic model, policies
Desislava Varadzhakova, Kristina Gartsiyanova – ASSESSMENT OF THE INTRA-REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN TOURISM IN THE NORTH CENTRAL REGION
Tourism is one of the most highly developed economic activities with asignificant share of Bulgaria’s gross domestic product. Despite the presence of diverseanthropogenic and natural tourism resources throughout the country, tourism revenues in someregions can be increased. The main goal of the article is to evaluate the development of tourismin the provinces of the North Central region, where the number of accommodation facilitiesis significantly smaller compared to the rest of the country and it’s greater only compared tothe North-West region – one of the most economically underdeveloped. The subject of theresearch are the tourist resources, the accommodation facilities, the number of tour operatorsand travel agencies and transport accessibility, as a prerequisite for the development of tourismin the provinces covered by the North Central Region. This publication traces which of theareas have the greatest potential for the development of tourism, as an opportunity to diversifythe regional economy. The assessment made shows that their specialization is determinedby their geographical location in two tourist areas, namely the Danube and Stara Planina.The development of the transport network and accessibility to resources is decisive for theattendance of the sites. In the North Central region, only about 9% of the accommodationplaces in the country are located, and 70% of them are low-category with 1 and 2 stars. About43% of the beds are in the Veliko Tarnovo region, and in Razgrad and Silistra provinces theyare the least – only about 7%. The measures that are recommended to be taken to increase theeconomic efficiency of the tourism activity in the region are related to the implementation of amore aggressive marketing and advertising strategy, participation in national and internationaltourist fairs, increasing the quality of service and the qualification of those employed in thetourism industry by province and regional level.
Keywords: North Central Region, tourism, intra-regional differences