ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Jubilees and Anniversaries
Prof. Iv. Batakliev – THE BOUNDARIES OF MIZIA, THRACE AND MACEDONIA (THE PIRIN REGION IS THE MAIN HEARTH OF THE BULGARIAN REVIVAL)(A POLITICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW)
In this previously unpublished material written by Prof. Dr. Ivan Batakliev in 1970, the boundaries of the „three Bulgarian districts” of Mizia, Thrace and Macedonia are examined in detail, while the changes of their boundaries are scrutinized from the ancient period on. The emphasis is on the difficulty of outlining those boundaries due to the „crossroads location of the Balkans between three continents and several seas.” The paper explains the difference between the two levels – the political and the geographical. As an anthropogeographer, the author draws attention to the people who inhabited these areas since ancient times, and unambiguously notes that „the Bulgarian people – during the Middle Ages and the Turkish era – inhabited relatively the longest the center of the peninsula „. Apart from his own studies prof. Iv. Batakliev presents also some studies of other scientists, starting from Strabo (63 BC – AD 19) – the father of geography, then notes and comment on the works of prominent local and foreign researchers from the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century. In this manuscript prof. Iv. Batakliev clearly shows his attitude towards the issue of border changes – occurring mainly for political reasons – and the inconvenience those changes cause to the lives of the Balkan peoples.
Viktor Samoilenko, Volodymyr Plaskalnyi – MODERN PROCEDURE OF LANDSCAPE ANTHROPIZATION ANAYSIS
The modern principles/approaches and procedure of anthropization extent analysis for Ukrainian landscapes were substantiated and developed. The procedure is universal for all-European and Ukrainian approaches and consists of four components: common-matter, parametric, logic-mathematical and verification-implementation component. The procedure embodies the scheme and the scales of landscape anthropization extent depending on anthropogenic impact extent of land use and/or land cover systems. This impact is specified by corresponding degrees of hemeroby, impact intensity, geoecological favorableness / unfavorableness and naturalness of mentioned systems.
Keywords: landscapes, anthropization, hemeroby, land use, land cover
Nikola Todorov, Angel Velchev, Mimoza Konteva – AN UPDATE OF THE LANDNDSCAPE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM IN BULGARIA (based on the landscape map from 1992, scale 1:500 000)
The article deals with some fundamental issues, concerning the preparation of landscape maps as well as the updating of the classification system used in the preparation of the landscape map from 1992. Special attention is paid to the updated landscape maps of Berkovska, Vlahina, Zemenska, Maleshevska and some other mountains. Emphasis is also placed upon the hydromorphic and sub-hydromorphic complexes in the humid zones, in the plains and in the mountain areas.
Keywords: updating, classification, landscapes, landscape types, genera and species.
Atanas Kitev – BIOGEOCHEMICAL RESEARCH OF THE LANDSCAPES IN SOUTH PIRIN
This paper presents the biogeochemical peculiarities of the landscapes in South Pirin (Southwestern Bulgaria) which are examined based on samples of selected plant species: Pistacia terebinthus, Juniperus oxycedrus, Fagus sylvatica, Cytisus sp., Sambucus racemosa, Sorbus aucuparia, Tussilago farfara. An analysis of the chemical elements Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Co, Cr and Ni was made. A comparison with the local soil geochemical background was made. The results were compared with similar research in Bulgaria. The biological absorption coefficient Ax was used to analyze the results.
Keywords: biogeochemistry, landscapes, plant species, biological absorption coefficient, South Pirin
Kristina Gartsiyanova – ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE „PCHELINA” RESERVOIR
In this article the quality of the waters of „Pchelina” reservoir for the period
2007-2015 was analyzed by assessment of some physico-chemical indicators and selected priority substances. The analysis was made in accordance with the Ordinance H-4 of
14.09.2012 on characterization of surface water and the requirements of the Ordinance on environmental quality standards for priority substances and other pollutants from 01.11.2010. An integrated index for water quality, comparative and graphical methods were applied. The indicators, whose values exceed the legal norms and lead to pollution of the water quality of the dam, are determined. The possible sources of pollution of „Pchelina” reservoir are identified.
Keywords: water quality, Struma river, „Pchelina” reservoir
Viliyan Krastev – THE TOURIST IMAGE OF THE SPACE AS AN INDICATOR OF “SOFT POWER”: GEOPOLITICAL ASSESSMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF BULGARIA
The article is devoted to issues concerning the tourist image of the space as a main evaluative attribute of soft power in contemporary geopolitics. The researched example of Bulgaria reveals the impact of tourism on mass perceptions (before and after 1989) and reflects on the potential of the country to exert soft power on international level. To achieve a higher degree of objectivity in the geopolitical assessment the position of Bulgaria is analyzed by using prestigious international ratings which measure the attractiveness and reputation (as an expression of soft power) of the countries in the world.
Keywords: postmodern geopolitics, soft power, image of space, Bulgaria, tourism
Vanya Vasileva – CONTEMPORARY STATE AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN MONTENEGRO
Montenegro is one of new and small in area Balkan country and the smallest one according to the population. The country demonstrates serious intent to develop their tourism, which is seen as a priority and promising sector. Small territory of Montenegro combines diverse and unique geographic conditions. Montenegro is one of the few places in Europe with well-preserved nature. The country is both sea and mountain. It is an important prerequisite for the development of the two most popular types of tourism – see recreation and skiing. It has formed three tourist areas on the small territory of the country. They are Mountain to the north, Central and Seaside (Adriatic). The trend of the number of arrivals and the number of nights spent has growthing since 2010. Dominate arrivals from Europe. Leading generators of tourist flows are Russia and Serbia. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of tourism in Montenegro, to give its position in the international tourism and to outline possible prospects for its future development as a tourist destination. The object of the survey is Montenegro. The paper studies tourist-resource potential and tourism sector of the country.
Keywords: Montenegro, tourism resources, tourism, tourist regions
Mariya Grozeva – CONDITIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE NORTHWEST PLANNING REGION
The aim of this study is to analyze the capacity of accommodation base and opportunities for rural tourism, i.e. the tourism in the rural territories of the Northwest Planning Region. Under the Law on Regional Development of Bulgaria (SG. 50, May 30, 2008) that part of the country covers the following five districts: Vidin, Montana, Vratsa, Pleven and Lovech. The development of rural tourism depends on many conditions and factors. But most important are three groups of factors: The first group includes presence of preserved natural environment that provides opportunities for relaxation and recreation; 2) The second is distinctive appearance of the villages and places of accommodation, which allow familiarization with typical local customs, crafts, lifestyle, cuisine, architecture and so on, as well as the availability of attractive natural and/or anthropogenic sites located relatively close to the villages; 3) The third group of factors – not less important than the first two – is the quality of the accommodation basе, which must meet the demands of the modern traveler.
Keywords: rural tourism, accommodation basis, Northwest planning region
Angelica Pușcaș – NESSEBAR. A CULTURAL-BALKANIC PARADIGM.
THE PERENNIAL PREVALENCE OF CULTURE
Nessebar, a multi-millenary settlement (2000 years BC), synchronous to the period of maximum flourishing of the antique cities, a period approximately incumbent to the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC in the Middle East, respectively to the 2nd and 1st millennia BC in the Mediterranean hinterland, blends a diachronic succession of various cultures and civiliza- tions (Thracian, Classical-Greek, Roman, Byzantine. Slavic, Ottoman, Bulgarian), a reality that will place it in the hierarchy of certain fabulous cultural topoi. Through its uniqueness, connected to the most significant spatial concentration of places of worship, related to the number of inhabitants, Nessebar is today a living legend.The unique cultural and religious heritage of Nessebar, intimately tied to the tumultuous history of the Balkan area, has essen- tially marked and determined the shape, size and value of the establishments. We can thus follow in a chronological perspective, through the churches, the rise and fall of the economic and political climate, these being “signs” strictly materialized up to the level of the force of the resources, competence and disponibilities the community had. To this day, the city preserves more than a hundred private architectural ensembles from the period of the “Bulgarian National Revival“. Built at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, these belong to an original style of architecture, defining for the “Black Sea Style“. The pattern exposes an evolution on two levels, supported by a ground floor built of stone, with an irregular shape imposed by the trajectory of the streets – with which they are often in a homogeneous continuity. The upper floor, built of wood, had a much wider extension, generously cantilevered above the street. The conclusions highlight the fundamental cultural meaning of our approach, which traverses an ascending path from periegesis towards exegesis and afterwards, to hermeneutics.
Keywords: balkanic spirituality, multicultural stratigraphy, sacred geography, religious architecture, civil arhitecture, tradition, ,UNESCO heritage.
Liubov Vishnikina – GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION: SUBJECT GEOGRAPHIC COMPETENCE
The article deals with the problem of the competency building approach to Geography teaching, the introducing of which is stipulated by the necessity to change the conceptual approaches to the content of geographic education and prediction of its results. The necessity in theoretical and applied research directed to scientific reasoning of the structure and content of subject geographic competencies of the pupils has been defined. The notions of “competence” and “competency” have been disclosed in the article, as well as the groups of geographic competencies – key, inter-subject integral and subject competencies have been characterised. At the same time the main attention has been paid to defining the functions and structure of subject geographic competency of pupils as a comprehensive whole. The content of individual subject geographic competencies, such as: geographic knowledge, geographic skills, and the experience of creative activity in geography, emotive and value attitude to environment and human activities in it, geographic comprehension of the world have been elucidated. This research has been done within the frames of the author’s research of complex theme “Methodological system of developing subject geographic competency of pupils of secondary school”.
Keywords: competency building approach to Geography teaching, competencies, key competencies and inter-subject integral competencies, subject geographic competency of the pupils.
Dimitar Parlichev – MORPHOBLEMES
The author continues his critical analysis of the key concepts in geomorphology, offering a new classification unit – morphoblemes. They represent the craters on the Earth’s surface from meteorite bombardment. This type of “forms of relief” (“morphostructures” according to the author) have not yet found their place in the most famous and used classifications of land relief due to the neutral and inaccurate name “astroblemes”. The authoir expects the name “structural geomorphology” to be replaced by its synonym “morphotectonics”; objects to the requirement that any concept in geomorphology remains in tis primary form to provide “natural selection” of the concepts as a guarantee for its evolution; illustrates some advantages of genetic classification of morphological structure.
Keywords: relief, morphostructures, morphotectures, morphosculptures, morpholithes, mofphoblemes.
Ангел Велчев – 115 YEARS SINCE THE BIRTH Of PROF. ILIYA IVANOV
This material is devoted to the 115th anniversary of the birth of the prominent Bulgarian geographer Prof. Iliya Ivanov. The author recalls his great contribution to the development of physical geography and to the foundation of landscape science, his teaching activities in the preparation of future scientific staff and his public activities in the Bulgarian geographic society, whose 100th anniversary is celebrated in 2018.