Congresses, Conferences, Symposia
Jubilees and Anniversaries
Rumiana Vatseva – Generalization of spatial data in GIS
Generalisation of data in GIS reflects a process of modeling the spatial information at different levels of abstraction. In this process two types of models are created: digital geospatial (geographical) model (DGM) and digital cartographic model (DCM), or map. They represent spatial databases or datasets in GIS. Geospatial and cartographic models, in turn, can be categorized as topographic and thematic models. In the present work, three types of generalisation in GIS for development of geospatial and cartographic models are discussed: 1) object generalisation, 2) model generalisation and 3) cartographic generalisation. Model generalisation is a data pro- cessing that is connected with geoinformation technologies. It allows obtaining data with a lower semantic and geometric resolution on basis of the data with a higher resolution. Generalisation in GIS is performed through the application of one or a number of operators, such as enhancement, elimination, aggregation, simplification, displacement, etc. In recent years, the model generalisation is widely used for spatial analysis with high accuracy and also for GIS database creation with multiresolution that is important practical application for the informed decision-making.
Dimitar Parlichev, Stoyko Stoev – The bio-geoecological disaster of the Bulgarian Black Sea and the way out of it
This review of the major geoecological and bioecological problems of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast reveals that there is every reason to believe that we are facing a marine national bio-geoecological disaster. Its origins are considered here. It is recommended a structural and methodological transformation of the Institute of Fishing Resources – Varna into an Institute of Marine Biological Resources – Varna, authorized to recover the Bulgarian Black Sea coast from its fragile state of bio-geoecological crisis with the primary task to develop a National Marine Environmental Protection Strategy.
Orlin Dimitrov, Dimitar Parlichev – Possible earthquake and tsunamigenic sources off the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea
Ancient history has records of devastating earthquakes along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, followed by equally devastating tsunamis, which means that their reoccurrence in our time is possible. The most likely sources of such geo catastrophes in the water area of the shelf are the hypocentres of the earthquakes registered by seismic detectors mainly along the seismogenic deep-seated fault of Kaliakra. The recently discovered fault area in the upper part of the continental slope east of Varna has currently active faults. It is possible to discover such faults along the continental slope as well, in particular in the zone southeast of the cape of Kaliakra. A further seven zones of seismogenic sources are known in the water area of the Black Sea. The abovementioned faults are in the Bulgarian sector and are located closest to our coast. The onslaught of an earthquake and tsunami initiated by these would be most intense against the Bulgarian shore, and the time for its inhabitants to escape would be the shortest. Therefore the study of the earthquake and tsunamigenic sources in the Bulgarian water area of the Black Sea needs to take the first priority among a number of tasks for the Bulgarian researchers of geological risks in its water area.
The EU has shown commendable concern for a more profound study of the geo catastrophic events that terrorize humanity with ever-increasing frequency and intensity. The transnational project of „MARINEGEOHAZARD”, which involved the development of an early warning system for marine geo hazards along the Bulgarian and the Romanian coast, was successfully completed. This project is of applied science value and in result of its completion the security of the coast residents and visi- tors has been enhanced. Furthermore, it is vital for the business in view of the fact that Bulgaria is a country with a rapidly developing tourism sector. What becomes particularly important in this case is short-term seismic prediction (from a few minutes to several days), which would enable to mitigate the inevitable death toll on the lower parts of the shore determined by certain terrain forms: beaches, limans, lagoons, river mouths, rockfalls, landslides, etc., especially in the holiday season.
In this respect, a couple of Bulgarian patents can be counted on in future re- garding the detection and study of underwater gas sources as indicators of imminent earthquakes, which are possible to be experimented through the funding of projects proposed for this purpose.
A number of facts are known regarding the change of the flow rate of the under- water gas sources before an earthquake. This is logical considering the fact that the gases (primarily hydrocarbons) are the most mobile and the lightest natural substrate which would be the fastest to react to changes in the pressure in the bowels of earth and would transfer it along the faults to the surface.
These facts and the related hopes for eventual success in short-term prediction contradict to the opinion of the leading Bulgarian and global seismologists, some of whom completely renounce the possibility of conducting short-term seismic prediction, while others concede it might be possible in the indefinite future. Either way, it is essential to work in this area.
Georgi Belev – Adverse and dangerous processes in the Struma graben valley between Razmetanitsa and Zhelezhitsa threshold (SW Bulgaria)
The article based on morphometric and hidroklimatik data field we monitor and analyze literature, an attempt is made to describe the adverse and dangerous processes and occurrence in a segment of the Struma graben valley. Considered processes and phenomena are differentiated endogenous, egso- endogenous, egsogenous and anthropogenic. Described factors influencing the intensity of the display process. Attention is drawn to the limit differentiating processes of adverse and dangerous. The aim is to give an overall assessment of the impact on human activity and the degree of vulnerability of the territory, land use, social and transport infrastructure.
Vladimir Vlaskov – Anthropogenic cause of the unfavourable geomorphological processes in the Pernik basin
The Pernik basin is one of the most stressed areas in the country in terms of anthropogenic load. The latest report of the European Commission (EEA) on the state of the environment (October 2013) indicated Pernik as the settlement with the most polluted air in the EU. In our research on anthropogenic morphogenesis, mining activities in the area have been identified as the main processes leading to adverse effects on the environment. Anthropogenic relief-forming processes are the result of purposeful, conscious human impacts on the environment and on the relief in particular. Those processes have a certain degree of spontaneity, which follows the deliberate and conscious initial impact, displayed by landslide and rockfall processes during mining, excavation and construction activities. Other consequences are the erosion processes in the bulk forms created as a result of such activites, as well as in agricultural activity, abrasion – affecting coastal areas, reservoirs and dam facilities, etc. Although such processes are undesirable, they are a constant sideaffect of the various types of human activity.
Galin Petrov – Landscape-geophysical characteristics of the basalt hills in Northern Bulgaria
This article tries to answer the question to what extend basalt rocks have influ- ence over the other components of the landscapes in the middle part of the Danube Plain. The results show that the basalt rocks have role in forming of black soils, nontypical for the zonal conditions of this part of Bulgaria. The contemporary complexes are characterized through quantities of geo masses and vertical landscape structures. The consequences of the anthropogenic impact are changes in natural vegetation, decrease in phyto masses and pedo masses. There is development of processes of natural vegetation recovery because of decrease of human impact.
Keywords: basalt hills, the Danube Plain, landscapes, landscape structure, black soils
Rumen Penin, Borislav Grigorov – Landscape and ecogeochemical research in the Iskretska river basin
An aim of the current research work is to identify and analyze the current land- scapes in Iskretska River Basin and the level of the anthropogenic impact. Ecogeochemical research is also a main target. The current condition of natural system is investigated. Landscapes are formed under the influence of geological, climatic, soil factors, anthropogenic pressure and other factors. Determining types of horizontal and vertical geochemical migration is important for revealing the geochemical picture of anthropogenic impact on natural system. Geochemical background and polluted territories are researched. Cameral and terrain research is done. Remote meth- ods are used to accomplish the aim of the current work. The system approach allows us to study the migration, differentiation and accumulation of chemical elements in landscapes. Two of the most important indexes are used. Geochemical spectrums are made by using Clarke of concentration and Clarke of dispersion. Bottom sediment probes and soil probes are collected. The content of the following microelement Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd in mg/kg; ppm in these probes is revealed. Certain conclusions and recommendations are made.
Keywords: Iskretska River basin, landscape research, ecogeochemical research, anthropogenic impact, bottom sediments, soil probes
Аtanas Kitev, Мimoza Кonteva, Rumiana Vatseva, Rumen Penin – Modern landscapes in the northern slope of Slavyanka mountain
In this study, the spatial distribution of landscape features is analyzed and the contemporary landscapes of northern slope of the Slavyanka Mountain are mapped to assess anthropogenic changes of landscape. The research work is based on the integration of traditional methods for landscape investigation and mapping, remote sensing data for land cover and land use and geochemical analyzes of selected mi- croelements in soil and sediments. Study area is located in southwestern Bulgaria in the close proximity of the state border between Bulgaria and Greece. A significant part of the study area is a Biosphere Reserve of Alibotush (Slavyanka), established more than 60 years ago, helping to preserve the primary landscape type and diversity. The results show that the northern slope of the Slavyanka Mountain is a rela- tively well-preserved natural area. More than 80% of the territory includes slightly modified and conventionally natural landscapes. Anthropogenic landscapes occupy less than 20% of the total area. It can be concluded that the study area is generally less affected by human activity and landscapes in the high mountain can be defined as natural.
Petar Nojarov – Climate of lower Danube plain in the region of Srebarna-Silistra-Calarasi
Characterization of climate of the region was made using data for the last 30- year period (1984–2013) from two meteorological stations – Silistra and Calarasi. Satellite data for different radiation fluxes (shortwave and longwave) and cloudiness were also used. Main research methods are statistical. Shortwave radiation fluxes in the study area show a net increase of 5.2 W/m2 per year of incoming to the surface radiation for the period from 1984 to 2007. This is due to a decrease of the albedo (most significantly in the period July-October) of the Earth’s surface and therefore of reflected shortwave radiation. This process leads to increased heating of the surface, thus increasing its temperature, increasing long-wave radiation fluxes and increas- ing near surface air temperature. Radiation budget is increasing also, although with statistically insignificant value. Comparison between different periods shows that mean air temperature in the region has increased significantly over the past 50 years with 0.7ºC. A greater increase was observed in minimum temperatures and in winter. There are significant regional differences due to local relief forms and specific location of meteorological stations. Calarasi station, which is located at lower altitude, has lower mean annual air temperature compared to Silistra station, the difference being particularly pronounced in autumn and winter. Annual precipitation amount in the study area practically does not vary temporally and spatially. However, the number of days with precipitation decreases, which means larger amounts per one precipitation event and therefore a greater flood risk. Also the annual course of precipitation has changed in the last 30 years, having recently three maxima and minima. This indicates a serious reorganization of circulation over the area. It does not lead to a change in wind direction, but its average speed has dropped significantly. Local physicogeographical conditions affect besides air temperature, also relative humidity, maximum wind speed and number of days with fog. Another main result of this study is clarifying the amount of total cloudiness and its annual course.
Alexandr Kolotukha – The tourist image of the places. Theoretical aspects and applied functions
The accumulated factual evidence of tourist activity has called for the theoretical comprehension of tourism. The theory of tourism – tourismology is called upon to serve this role. The essence of it lies informing the rationale for basic theoretical proposition and conceptual models of tourism, including a spatial model. Stating the fact that the organisation of recreational and tourist activities is of complex nature, it is necessary to note that in the course of the expansion of scientific research it was just “the geographical character” of problems of its development that had been distinctly revealed since recreational and tourist activity is in the first place implicated in the properties of the geographical environment and, secondly, is geographically differentiated. This led to the emergence of such research area as the geography of tourism, which subject of research is territorial organisation of the tourist activity of people.
One of the most effective types of recreational and tourist activity is sports tourism. Sports tourism is a kind of active recreation and tourism activity in the pristine or slightly altered natural environment, and consists in passing the tourist routes overcoming various obstacles (passes, tops, rapids, canyons,caves, swamps, etc.) by various means of travel using special equipment and technologies. Sport tourism is nature-oriented, in fact, and is included in the block of active tourism together with sports and recreation and extreme tourism, which is superimposed on the subject field of adventure tourism.
There fore, a weighty component of tourism geography is the geography of sports tourism, which object of study is the sports tourism as a social phenomen on of geospatial content and the subject of study – its geospatial structure.
System analysis of tourist and sports activity entitles to assert that sports tourism is a specific territorial recreation system, which consists of the interrelated subsystems, such as “tourists – athletes”, “system of institutions and organisations of sports tourism” and “resource base of sports tourism”, including resource and tourist potential of the territories where tourist and sports activity is carried out.
The subsystem “Tourists – athletes” is at the center of the system, thus, the sys- tem of sports tourism is a subject centeredone. However, at that resource and tourist potential the main component of which is recreational and tourist resources, acts as a substrate of the system development. In sports tourism this segment of the system is specific and extremely important. There fore, it is reasonable to single out this complex of resource as a separate category – the category of sports recreation and tourist resources.
Taking into account the peculiarities of sports tourism makes it possible to under- stand regularities of recreational and geographical processes and to use them in solving practical tasks connected with forecasting and planning of development of this tourism field. Thus, it can be asserted that, to date, the geography of sports tourism is formed as an independent scientific discipline of tourism geography, with its specific object and subject of study in the sphere of tourismology and geography as well.
Keywords: tourismology, geography of tourism, geography of sports tourism, sports tourism, sports recreation and tourism resources.
Vilian Krastev – The tourist image of the places. Theoretical aspects and applied functions
The current article analyzes the creation and the effective operation of the tourist images of a place, with emphasis on its theoretical characteristics and applied functions. The focus in the present study is aimed at space-representative analysis of the main factors (considered by us as details of an exemplary concentric model), which factors are involved in the process of creating and affirming the tourist image of a particular place. In a generalized aspect, we believe that those factors are: presence of an attractive toponym; „ensouled (spiritualized)” tourism landscape; an established spatial tourist myth status; VIP attitude position; information support and cartographic perceptions. All those tourist image details, which form the image of the place, are sufficiently correlated, overlapping each other, and in some cases – interchangeable. In this sense, the construction of the tourist image is aimed at offering a territorial project that is integrated, flexible, comprehensive, but which is also programmable with emphasis on each separate component, so that an optimal stereotyped pattern is ensured in the expectations of the tourist contingent.
Keywords: tourist image, tourist landscape, spatial myth, territorial tourism marketing, territorial brand
Pelo Mihaylov – 80 years since the largest in scale renaming of the settlements in Bulgaria
The article notes the 80th anniversary of the renaming of settlement names in Bulgaria, conducted in 1934. By nine decrees of the Minister of Internal Affairs and Public Health have changed the names of the 1875 settlements or 32.6% of them.
Revealed is a history of preparing for change, started in 1924, extended by two bills of 1925 and 1931, and the activities of the Scientific Commission worked in 1931–32, in which take part professors Anastas Ishirkov (geographer), Vasil Zlatarski and Gavril Katzarov (historians), Stefan Mladenov (linguist) and others. Nearly 15 percent of the new names are commemorative (memorial) in honor and memory of Bulgarians and foreigners contributed to our national history.
In conclusion, is reported high value of the renaming of settlements in 1934 as well as assessed as very successful proposals of scientific committee, as 89.7% of the new names are not changed then through the years.
Valentin Mihaylov – The role of monuments of gratitude in formation of urban cultural landscape (case of the town of Vratsa)
The relationships between the territorial identity, space and historical memory represent the field of scientific interest for historians, architectures, cultural anthropologists and specialists of arts. During the last three decades that matter also attracts more and more geographers.
On the example of the town of Vratsa, located in North-Western part of Bul- garia, the role of monuments of gratitude in formation of urban cultural landscape devoted is discussed in the article. More than 20 historic monuments, memorial busts and reliefs are located on the territory of the town which counts 60 thousand inhabitants.
In Vratsa during the communism, a number of monuments of local, national and international communist activists were built. Most of them were disassembled during the post-totalitarian period. Simultaneously, many new monuments were built in honor of local and national activists from the era of National Renaissance as well as fighters for Liberation from the Ottoman Empire. Located in the foothills of the Vrat- sa Mountain (part of the Balkan range), the central historical part of the town gives the unique opportunities to architectures and sculptors to involve the natural decor to their works. In that respect, better example is the biggest in the country monument of Hristo Botev located in the Main Square as well as the monument of the Russian herald of Freedom located in one of the south hills of the town. It is stressed the im- portant influence which the old and new monuments play in the process of patriotic upbringing and formation of knowledge about a “little homeland”. The special accent on the ties between the changing ideologies and using the public space for political purposes after the Liberation in 1878 until nowadays is also given in the analysis. In spite of changes in the politics of memory, the space of the town of Vratsa remains a source of a strong national identity as well as attachment to the local activists which have had a significant contribution to the national history.
Petar Petrov, Stoyan Nedkov – The Bulgarian Geographic Society – foundation, existence, restoration and future
Ivanka Boteva – 40th anniversary of the Department of Landscape and Environmental Protection at the FGG – “St. Kliment Ohridski” Sofia Univeristy
Galin Petrov, Petia Sabeva – 30th anniversary of the Department of Geography – “St. St. Cyril and Methodius” Veliko Tarnovo University