ISSN 2367-6671 (Online)
PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHY
Dedicated to the life and work of the founder of geographic science in Bulgaria
Acad. Anastas Ishirkov
Stefan Karastoyanov – ANASTAS ISHIRKOV – A FOUNDER OF GEOGRAPHIC SCIENCE IN BULGARIA
The Paper is a critical analysis of the life and the scientific of the Patriarch of the Geography in Bulgaria – Acad.Prof. Anastas Ishirkov. This brilliant scientist has made the fundamental investigation in the development of geography as a science. His great erudition and broad scientific interests enabled A.Ishirkov to set the bases of geography as a discipline. Analysing his scientific studies, he has always remained on an active civil position, faithful to national ideals.
Nadezhda Ilieva – TYPOLOGY OF THE RURAL SETTLEMENTS IN BULGARIA FOR THE 1992-2011 PERIOD IN THE CONTEXT OF DEPOPULATION PROCESSES
In recent decades, human capital has become an increasingly important topic of study. It is regarded as a leading development factor, given that the demographic development itself is closely linked to the overall economic development. Human capital – with its quantitative and qualitative characteristics – can hinder or accelerate the overall development of a given territory, especially when viewed in a spatial aspect, taking into account the specificities of that same territory. This study has found that the polarization of the depopulation processes is a result of various social, economic, demographic, ethno-cultural, political, psychological, natural, ecological and other factors. The spatial expansion of the depopulation processes is examined based on the study of the main demographic indicators on a settlement level. The depopulation processes in rural settlements are much deeper than in urban settlements. Significant spatial disparities are also observed. The relationship between the starting moment of depopulation processes and their magnitude over the last 25 years has been proved. The influence of the regional centers on the demographic development of the adjacent settlements has also been outlined. In most villages, extreme negative thresholds have been reached, which define the deepening unfavorable demographic trends in the future. Only a limited number of villages exhibit population growth. The trend of population concentration in the middle-sized and large urban settlements, together with the dropout of numerous very small villages from the settlement network, continues. The complete depopulation of many small villages located mainly in mountainous and peripheral areas leads to a number of negative consequences associated with serious difficulties in the development of these areas in the near future. By typologizing the villages using the classic method of John Webb (1963), the trends in population dynamics have been traced for the 1992-2001 and the 2001-2011 subperiods, based on the degree of influence of the two main components that determine the population number change – the natural increase/decrease and the positive/negative net migration rate. In the 2001-2011 subperiod, the number of villages belonging to the types that exhibit the most unfavorable demographic situation has grown compared to the 1992-2001
subperiod. Using the IDW tool in ArcGIS for spatial analysis and visualization, areas with varying degrees of depopulation have been outlined in great detail.
Keywords: rural villages, depopulation, population growth/decrease structure, typology
of rural settlements, areas with varying degrees of depopulation
Svetla Georgieva – DEFINITION OF RURAL AREAS
The EU’s rural areas are characterized by great diversity in terms of natural, socio-economic and institutional conditions and features. Preparation and implementation of rural development strategies and measures determine the need to define and delimitate these areas by using certain criteria. The aim of this paper is to analyze the approaches to defining rural areas at both international and national level, to explore the international classifications and methodology used for delineation of rural areas. For this purpose, a detailed overview of the international literature on the topic and the legislation in Bulgaria related to rural areas, has been made.
Keywords: rural areas, definitions, criteria, typologies
Spas Tashev – ESSENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN AND BALKAN MIGRATION ROUTE
By analyzing the structure and behavior of migratory flows, it has been found that the Western Balkan Migration Route is a natural extension of the East Mediterranean. By the coefficient of annual migration routes load, it is revealed the dynamics of use of the main migratory routes leading to the EU. It is concluded that the Balkan’s secondary migration route Bulgaria-Serbia-Hungary functions relatively independently. This increases the risk of migratory pressures even during periods of relatively low load on the Western Balkans Migration Route.
Keywords: Western Balkan Migration Route, Eastern Mediterranean Migration Route,
Secondary Balkan’s Migration Route Bulgaria-Serbia-Hungary, Migration pressure.
Kristina Gartsiyanova – REGULATION ON THE MANEGMENT AND USE OF UNDERGROUND WATER IN BULGARIA
The article reviews the current legislation on the management and use of the water sector in Bulgaria, including groundwater. An overview of the European and Bulgarian water legislation is made, outlining the main problems and challenges related to the use and protection of groundwater. To regulate water management and use in Bulgaria, it is necessary to develop a new conceptual-regulatory framework to overcome interinstitutional division and competition and to synchronize laws, regulations and strategic documents. It is necessary to provide conditions for real implementation of the policy for the basin management and the polluter pays principle through an adequately functioning regulatory framework that will establish a state mechanism for water management and protection in the country.
Keywords: groundwater, regulatory framework, Water Act in Bulgaria
Rumen Penin, Lidiya Semerdzhieva – LANDSCAPE – GEOCHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF THE LOWER PART OF THE PROVADIYSKA RIVER
This paper presents the contemporary landscapes and their geoecological condition in one of the most technogenic areas in Bulgaria – the Devnya industrial zone – within its natural boundaries – the lower part of the Provadiyska river catchment basin, down to its river mouth in lake Beloslav. Using landscape-geochemical research methods, the specifics and the conditions of migration and differentiation of heavy metals in soils (being an informative component of the landscapes) have been revealed. An attempt of determining the concentration of heavy metals, their radial and lateral differentiation in both relatively unaffected and considerably affected by human impact landscapes has been made. Some of the problems associated with the introduction, transformation and accumulation of technogenic substances in the studied landscapes have also been examined. The results are compared with those of similar research, carried out in the above-mentioned area 20 years ago.
Keywords: landscapes, geochemistry, heavy metals, catchment basin, radial and lateral
differentiation of microelements, Provadiyska river.
Yuriy Yatsentyuk – THE PARADYNAMIC ZONE OF MINERAL (GEOMORPHOMOGICAL) IMPACT OF RESERVOIRS OF PODILLYA REGION OF UKRAINE
Reservoirs of hydroelectric power stations and the surrounding landscapes are considered in the article as reservoir-valley paradynamic anthropogenic landscape systems (PDALS). The paradynamic anthropogenic landscape zones of hydrological, mineral, hydrogeological, climatic, biotic, economic and social impact of hydroelectric power stations and reservoirs on the environment are identified in their structure. The peculiarities of the zone of mineral impact of the reservoirs of the Podillya region of Ukraine as an organic part of the PDALS „dam with a hydroelectric power station – a reservoir – a zone of mineral impact – a shallow type of aqua complexes“ are described in detail. The abrasion, erosion, landslide, scree, suffosive and karst processes, which manifest themselves within this zone, in the Ukrainian Podillya, are considered. The article is based on the materials of field research conducted by the author in the period from 2004 to 2017. In addition to the field one, the literature-cartographic and morphometric methods, as well as methods of analyticalcartographic analysis and theoretical generalization were used.
Keywords: paradynamic anthropogenic landscape system, reservoir, hydroelectric power station, mineral impact zone, surrounding landscapes, paradynamic connections, shallow water.
Atanas Kitev – HEAVY METALS IN THE SOILS IN SOUTH PIRIN
This paper present the composition of microelements in the soils in South Pirin (Southwestern Bulgaria). An analysis of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Co, Cr and Ni has been made. The results were compared with values for the world, Europe, as well as Bulgaria. The local soil-geochemical background. The clarke of concentration (КК), the clarke of dispersion (KP) and the radial differentiation coefficient (Kp/R) have been calculated. Compared with the soils of the world, Europe and Bulgaria the study shows that there is an increased concentration (KK) of Pb and Zn, and a dispersion of Cr, Cu, Co and Mn. The radial differentiation coefficient has been used for measuring the concentration of heavy metals in different soil types: Chromic Luvisols, Cambisols – 3 soil profiles, Rendzinas and Fluvisols. In the Chromic Luvisols R shows relatively uniform movement of microelements – they accumulate from the lowest exposed soil layer to the upper one, this is most clearly distinguished by Pb. In the Rendzinas the opposite trend is observed. In the Fluvisols, the concentration of Ni and Pb in the medium soil layers is clearly visible, while the Zn – in the surface layer. The soil profiles of Cambisols are characterized by varying values of the microelements in vertical direction. But it can be concluded that the Mn is accumulated in upper layers of all 3 soil profiles.
Keywords: microelement, heavy metals, geochemical research of soils, clarke of
concentration (КК), clarke of dispersion (KP), radial differentiation coefficient (Kp/R), landscapes, South Pirin
Emilia Tcherkezova – ANALYSIS AND ASSESMENT OF THE LAND COVER IN THE AREA OF THE KRUMOVITSA RIVER BASIN, EASTERN RHODOPES
The article presents the results of the analysis of the land cover and land use in the area of the Krumovitsa River Basin (Eastern Rhodopes) in relation to the local geomorphometric variables altitude above Sea level, slope and aspect and slope’s curvature. Data on CORINE Land Cover and Land Use for 2012 has been used. The obtained results represent a geomorphometric characteristic of the terrain using these variables and their spatial distribution for each land cover and land use class using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Keywords: CORINE Land Cover, Digital Elevation Model, Geographic Information
Systems (GIS), Krumovitsa River, Eastern Rhodopes
Davis Dinkov – 3D MODELING OF NATURAL LANDSCAPES USING UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS
Capturing, documentation and visualization of natural heritage objects is an expanding application area. Advanced Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) offer a technology of obtaining geometrical and semantic information about natural landmarks from imaging using various types of sensors. The use of non-metric digital cameras embedded in middleclass UAS together with appropriate software and methodology allows for accurate digital spatial products to be obtained. These are files in standard formats with information that includes the orthophoto mosaic of the area under consideration, a three dimensional (3D) digital surface model (DTS), a 3D cloud, a vector CAD model (isolines and characteristic points), and a photo archive on the territory. The main focus of this study is on innovative lowcost photogrammetric technique for obtaining high-resolution datasets at a range of scales using the „Structure-from-Motion“ (SfM). The SfM method is based on matching features (points) in multiple overlapping images in order to solve the camera pose and image geometry simultaneously and automatically. Image-processing creates 3D point clouds, originally in a local model space. Point clouds are transformed into a projection coordinate system using known camera positions or a network of GCPs on which high accuracy coordinates are measured by the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers and subsequently identified in the point cloud. The SfM method is useful when using non-metric cameras and is also applicable for convergent, horizontal, vertical and sloping images captured by differentcameras. Example applications of SfM are presented for landforms of natural landmarks.
Keywords: 3D modeling, UAS, SfM method, Natural Landscapes, Vrachanski Balkan
Georgi Zhelezov, Boyan Koulov – CONVENTION FOR THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE (BALKAN CONVENTION)
The article observes the problems of the mountain regions in Southeastern Europe. The other aspect of the publication is related with review of the main researches and activities for the mountain regions in Bulgaria and Southeastern Europe. The two main European conventions for the mountain regions (Alpine and Carpathian) are also presented. Development of the convention for the mountain regions in Southeastern Europe (Balkan convention) is key problem of the study. The experience and results of Alpine and Carpathian conventions can be use for the model in the process of foundation and realization of the new convection for the mountain regions in Southeastern Europe.
Keywords: convention, mountain, Southeastern Europe
Elka Dogramadjieva – THE EXTENSION OF BANSKO SKI ZONE: A PROBLEM OR A SOLUTION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM
The paper tracks out the problematic case of Bansko Ski Zone extensionand presents a brief analysis of the resort’s current state and tourism planning as well as the key external factors influencing the development of ski tourism: climatic changes, global ski tourism market trends, and Bulgarian ski tourism market. The study is entirely based on secondary information: official documents, statistical data, and marketing research results, scientific and mass-media publications. On this basis, the author seeks to answer the questions whether the farther extension of Bansko Ski Zone is inevitable, can it solve the existing problems in the resort and does it pose future risks to sustainable tourism development at municipal and regional level.
Keywords: Bansko Ski Zone, utilization, sustainable development, tourism planning